Did Hongwu Emperor flay 5000 women, and why?

Did Hongwu Emperor flay 5000 women, and why?

On Wikipedia, there is a snippet that reads:

The Hongwu Emperor flayed many servants, officials and rebels.[5][6] In 1396 he ordered the flaying of 5000 women.[7]

The problem is that the second sentence is the only information I can find about such an episode; the single citation is to a Chinese book:

陈学霖(2001). 史林漫识. China Friendship Publishing Company.

I don't have access to this book (by Hok-lam Chan), and the only English results online go right back to the reference on flaying, so none explain why the execution was performed. Although the lack of references suggests this may be a hoax, it is not out-of-character, as Hongwu and his successor Yongle were both noted for paranoia and cruelty, with the latter torturing 2800 ladies-in-waiting to death.

Can someone with access to the sources check whether this really did happen, and if so what the reason was?


The claim is sourced from明興野記, lit. Unofficial Records of the Rise of Ming, by the contemporary Yu Ben. It was originally titled紀事錄, lit. Chronicles, but a certain Zhang Da Tong later changed it because it wasn't fancy enough. Zhang also inserted some editorialising, especially to defend the emperor, as well as an abstract introducing Yu's work as "credible".

Yu Ben was a veteran from Emperor Hongwu's campaigns to overthrow the Mongols. He joined the future Hongwu Emperor's body guard unit in 1357, and fought under various commanders for the next forty odd years. Consequently, Yu's work is valued as an uncensored first-hand account of the Ming Dynasty's founding.

In this case, Yu reports that the Hongwu Emperor suspected his palace staff of unauthorised liaisons. Therefore, in a characteristic display of paranoia and brutality, he ordered the flaying of more than 5,000 palace servant girls and those eunuchs who were supposed to watch the gates.

《俞本·紀事錄》上疑其通外,將婦女五千餘人,俱剝皮貯草以示眾,守門宦者如之

His majesty suspected them of liaisons with outsiders, so he ordered over 5,000 women be flayed, stuffed with straws, and put on display. The eunuch gatekeepers met the same fate.

As far as I can tell, there seems to be no other source to corroborate Yu's account. However, his writing is generally considered credible, and this is completely in character for the emperor.


Everything You’ve Ever Wanted to Know on Ancient Chinese Culture

Ancient Chinese culture has a unique place among the different cultures of the world. Historical evidences have shown the spread of Chinese culture and traditions to neighboring countries such as Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Let us have a glimpse into the culture of ancient China.

Ancient Chinese culture has a unique place among the different cultures of the world. Historical evidences have shown the spread of Chinese culture and traditions to neighboring countries such as Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. Let us have a glimpse into the culture of ancient China.

Did you know?

Ancient Chinese culture has made many significant contributions to the field of science through the inventions of paper, compass, gunpowder, and printing.

Ancient Chinese civilization is one of the most advanced civilizations the world has ever known. Geographically, ancient China was a formidable land. It lacked easy access to land and sea routes, a reason why it could withstand numerous hostile invasions. This made ancient China a prosperous, and a highly independent society. The Chinese civilization has contributed to the world in more ways than one. The inventions that they made, their art and architecture, their overall culture, and most importantly, their wisdom have been influencing and inspiring the world till date.

Evolution of Culture

The Chinese civilization can be traced back to the Neolithic age. It evolved on the banks of both, the Yellow river and the Yangtze river valleys. Over a period of time, many dynasties flourished in China. Following is a list of a few notable ones.

Xia Dynasty 2100 – 1600 B.C.
Shang Dynasty 1700 – 1046 B.C.
Zhou Dynasty 1046 – 256 B.C.
Qin Dynasty 221 – 206 B.C.
Han Dynasty 202 B.C. – 220 A.D.
Sui Dynasty 589 – 618 A.D.
Tang Dynasty 618 – 907 A.D.
Yuan Dynasty 1271 – 1368 A.D
Ming Dynasty 1368 – 1644 A.D.
Qing Dynasty 1644 – 1911 A.D.

Though historical records inform us about the existence of the Xia dynasty, the documented history of China can be found from the period of the Shang dynasty. During the Zhou period, the kingdom fabricated into six separate states, which went to war with each other. Qin Shi Huang of Qin dynasty defeated Zhou dynasty, and brought the warlords of the six fighting states together to build the very first Chinese empire. The successive dynasties laid down a strong foundation for bureaucratic systems and management. This enabled the future Emperors to exercise control over unified China.

• The Chinese traditional arts represent the country’s rich heritage. Since the Neolithic period, arts have been prevalent in the country.

• In ancient times, artifacts made of jade, and pottery formed the crux of Chinese arts.

• Bronze was introduced only during the Shang dynasty.

• Chinese porcelain (a form of ceramic ware which is famous worldwide) was used during the Imperial era.

• With the advent of this era, performing arts like theater and dance were introduced in China.

• The rule of Yuan dynasty brought in a remarkable phase of Chinese culture, marked by great paintings of Zhao Mengfu, and the beginning of Chinese opera.

• Many musical instruments were also played in the ancient period.

• Many Chinese art forms were influenced by Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism.

• Motifs and designs of birds, flowers, butterflies, dragons, phoenixes, etc. in arts, depicted the inherent liking for nature among the Chinese people.

• Under the rule of the Zhou dynasty, it was said that a student needed to master the Six Arts (liù yì in Chinese) for his all-round development, which included rites, music, archery, chariot racing, calligraphy, and mathematics.

• Apart from these, pottery, painting, sculpture, folk arts, paper craft, martial arts, and metal arts were amongst the diverse art forms that were practiced in ancient China.

Architecture

• Ancient Chinese architecture is a magnificent and a splendid aspect of Chinese culture.

• The Grand Canal, which was formed by connecting different river systems during the Sui dynasty, is a man-made wonder.

• Even the Great Wall of China that was completed during reign of the Ming dynasty is an architectural wonder of the world.

• The Imperial Mausoleum (built by thousands of architects) is another fine example that showcases the grandeur of royal life, and labors of the common Chinese people in the ancient times.

• Many beautiful imperial gardens were built during the Tang period.

• The ancient Chinese architecture was influenced by Taoism, which stressed on balance or symmetry. The houses in this period had long pillars and curved roofs.

• With the introduction of Buddhism, the artistic sensibilities shifted from Taoism and Chinese folk religion to Buddhism. Big pagoda-style houses came up as a result of transition.

• Later on, a variety of styles and structures were fused in the pagoda architecture.

• The Forbidden City, a stunningly beautiful imperial palace, was built during the Ming period.

• Emperors from different ruling dynasties built varied styles of imperial and summer palaces. These palaces, built on the sides of hills and mountains, boast of rich architectural excellence that prevailed in ancient China.

• Since the number nine was regarded lucky, the structures were designed in such a way that they had nine sections, and the size of each section was in multiples of nine.

• Dragon and phoenix were very important mythical beings in Chinese mythology. The palace and temple walls were embellished with dragon and phoenix motifs, believed to be a representation of the emperors themselves.

Food and Beverages

• In China, millet and rice were harvested around the fourth and fifth millennium B.C. Rice has been the staple food in ancient China since 5000 B.C. Wine, made out of rice, was also very popular.

• The kind of food that the people of ancient China consumed, depended on their geographical location.

• The northern people prepared foods with flavor of garlic and vinegar along with oil, whereas the southern Chinese dishes were more spicy, and cooked with chili and peppers.

• The Chinese also ate fish, chicken, pork, and meat. Their diet included noodles, soybean, and vegetables such as cabbage, peas, beans, bamboo shoots, etc.

• It is interesting to note that the shortage of sources of fuel prompted people to cut food into fine pieces for quick cooking.

• The essence of Chinese food was its color, aroma, and flavor along with the nutritional value.

• The Chinese also believed in the medicinal importance of food. This formed the very basis of traditional Chinese medicine.

• One of the most popular beverages in ancient China was tea. Its invention is credited to the Zhou dynasty, according to Erya, an ancient Chinese dictionary.

• The Chinese people had certain rules for eating. Food was consumed while being seated in a particular order. For example, men were seated first, followed by women, and finally, children.

Festivals

• Traditional Chinese festivals like the Chinese New Year and the Dragon Boat Festival have been celebrated since the ancient times.

• The Chinese New Year begins on the first day of the first month, according to the lunisolar Chinese calendar. Legend has it that the festival started with a fight against Nian (a mythical beast).

• The ancient Chinese had a belief that Nian will not attack them, if food was offered to it. Since then, they started keeping food outside their house entrances on the first day of the festival.

• People prayed to the God of wealth with the hope that He will bring good fortune to the family.

• The Dragon Boat Festival was celebrated with zeal, even during the ancient times.

• Some sources mention that the festival was celebrated in order to honor the death of Qu Yuan (340 B.C. to 278 B.C.), the royal poet of the ancient state of Chu.

• During the Warring States Period (that resulted in the unification of China under the Qin dynasty in 221 B.C.), the king of Chu decided to ally with the powerful state of Qin.

Qu Yuan opposed this alliance, following which he was banished by his state, and charged for treachery. Owing to this, he drowned himself in the Miluo river on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month.

• The local villagers who admired him, fed the fish in the river with rice, so that it would spare his body. The villagers also paddled out on boats to retrieve his corpse. This marked the beginning of the Dragon Boat Festival.

• Traditional Chinese festivals were celebrated with the aim of spreading good wishes and happiness.

• The traditional Ghost Festival was celebrated on the fifteenth day of the seventh lunar month. It marked the end of the Ghost Month celebrations.

• Offerings of food were made and ghost money was burned, in order to please the visiting ghosts, ancestors, and spirits.

• In ancient China, people also celebrated the Lantern Festival, Double Ninth Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, and so on.

Funeral Beliefs and Customs

• Ancient Chinese people believed in the concept of reincarnation. Jade was believed to have the powers to bestow immortality and protection.

• Many royalties were buried with an entire robe made of small jade tiles, attached together with threads of gold or silver.

• Rich people and noblemen were buried with a jade disk or a jade mask on their bodies.

• The size and design of the tombs demonstrated the social ranking or political status of the deceased person. Chinese emperors and affluent people were buried in more elaborate tombs.

Small spirit utensils or figurines (Mingqi) were also placed in the tomb. Items of daily use like food, beverages, lamps, weapons, musical instruments, clothing, jewelry, silk textiles, trinkets, bronze vessels, lacquers, jades, ceramic and terracotta replicas of buildings, chariots, servants, farm animals, military figurines, food items and utensils, etc. were also kept in the tomb. This was done to look after the requirements of the dead in their afterlives.

• A great example of this funerary art form is the terracotta army, buried with Emperor Qin Shi Huang for protecting him in his afterlife.

• A dangerous looking beast or a human sculpture was placed outside a tomb as a ‘tomb guardian’.

• The practice of sacrificing humans during burial came to an end during the Qin dynasty. However, animals like horses and dogs were buried along with their masters, even during the Han dynasty.

Livelihood

• A strong class system was prevalent during the ancient times. The four social hierarchies were shi, the gentry scholars nong, the peasants gong, artisans and craftsmen and shang, merchants and traders.

• Men from affluent families often took up places in the court, as warriors.

• They also worked as scholars, who used their intellectual prowess for guiding the emperor on strategic matters.

• Many people worked as peasants, and had to toil very hard on farmlands to scrape a living.

• Many artisans worked as painters, calligraphers, musicians, poets, etc. Men were also involved as architects in building tombs, palaces, buildings, etc. Many were involved in building the Grand Canal and the Great Wall of China.

• The merchants acted as traders, bankers, shopkeepers, moneylenders, etc., and indulged in the exchange of goods and services.

• Other vocations pursued during the ancient era by men included working as priests, domestic servants, fishermen, hunters, laborers, soldiers, guards, court eunuchs, etc.

• Women were expected to stay at home and run the household. They looked after cooking, cleaning, sewing, weaving, and undertaking other laborious chores around the house. They were also supposed to take care of children.

• However, some peasant women had to go and work in the farms, alongside looking after their homes, in order to earn a sufficient living.

Attire and Hairstyles

• The apparels of the ancient Chinese people differed according to their social ranks. The rich and the royal classes wore silk clothing, while the working classes wore clothes made of ramie or hemp.

• The Mongol emperor Kublai Khan gave impetus to cotton clothing.

• The three traditional Chinese clothing were pien-fu (a two piece ceremonial costume), changshan (a long dress), and shen-i (a long robe with loose sleeves).

• Both men and women wore long tunics with belts or sashes.

• They wore padded clothes with pants throughout winter.

• From the Sui dynasty onwards, only the emperor was allowed to wear yellow color. The poor people were only allowed to wear blue or black colored clothing.

• The color code for clothes during mourning was white, and during celebration or happiness, a red attire was preferred.

• Embroidered designs were a unique feature of traditional Chinese clothing. People used ornamental shells and stone beads for embroidering the garments.

• Both men and women sported long hair as they believed that their hair was a gift from their parents. Therefore, cutting of hair was not considered auspicious.

• Men wore various head gears to cover their heads, a tradition which was enthusiastically followed under the rule of different dynasties.

• Women braided their hair and pinned them up. They also decorated it with various hair clasps, crowns, combs, and hairpins.

• Married women wore different hairstyles than the unmarried ones.

Jewelry

• People wore jewelry made of jade, turquoise, coral, gold, silver, and even blue kingfisher feathers.

• Intricate designs of dragons and phoenixes were incorporated in the jewelry.

• Both men and women wore jewelry. Men donned special badges to mark their ranks or social status, while women wore jewelry to look beautiful.

• Men sported ornate knobs on their hats, representing their civil or military positions.

• Necklaces and bracelets were common forms of jewelry for both men and women.

• Small earrings were worn. Men wore one earring, whereas the women wore a pair of them.

Shoes and Foot Binding

Credit: Underwood & Underwood/LOC/via Wikimedia Commons (PD)

• Men chose to wear black leather shoes on formal occasions, and beautiful silk and leather ones on special occasions.

• Many Chinese men who couldn’t afford silk and leather, wore cotton shoes.

• Women in ancient China were subjected to an inhuman practice of binding their feet to make them look smaller.

• Tiny feet known as Lotus Feet were a symbol of sensuality and beauty. Having tiny feet was a must for girls of elite classes, in order to find wealthy husbands.

• Later on, even the working class families started following this tradition in pursuit of a wealthy match.

• Bones of the toes were broken, bend, and bound for years.

• Silk wrappings were used to cover the feet. The feet were then placed in beautifully embroidered Lotus shoes.

• However, this practice disfigured the feet of the women, and often resulted in bacterial infections.

Chinese Martial Arts

• In ancient China, board games and movement games were common, both of which originated from war training.

• Generals were given training in board games, whereas movement games or martial arts were taught for the purpose of fighting and self-defense.

• In those times, the most popular board game was Go, which is said to have originated around 2000 B.C.

• It was believed that the Yellow Emperor had invented martial arts for the first time, in about 2600 B.C. (much before the Shang dynasty).

• By around 550 B.C., Sun Tzu wrote ‘Art of War’, describing the techniques of martial arts. It was around the same time that the Taoists started practicing Tai Chi.

• During the time of the Han dynasty (around 50 A.D.), Pan Ku wrote a book about Kung Fu. The theory behind Kung Fu fighting styles was rooted in ancient Chinese philosophy.

• There were two categories under Kung Fu – internal and external. The former involved training the spirit (shen) and mind (xin), whereas in external Kung Fu, one needed to exercise muscles, tendons, and bones.

• It was practiced as a unique combination of art, exercise, self-defense, and self-discipline.

Role of Women

• Many men followed the Confucian principles and teachings which asserted that women were subservient to men.

• The birth of a girl child was not treated with happiness as fathers had to give away heavy dowry during their marriages.

• Women had no voice or right in choosing their husbands.

• If their husbands died, women were not allowed to remarry, even if they were of a tender age. Even if a woman dared to remarry, she was sentenced to death.

• The primary duty of a woman was to bear male heirs, and look after the domestic household.

• She had no right to stop her husband from taking other wives and concubines (as it was legal then) unless she belonged to a rich family with a considerable social standing.

• The inhuman practice of foot binding was rampant.

• Women were not sent to schools for education. Some women learned to read from their brothers, and taught their children.

• Women even developed the secret Nushu language of communication, which was privy to women only.

• However, some notable changes occurred in the status of women during the Han and Tang dynasties. Empress Wu Zetian is one of the notable empresses of China who brought about considerable change to the situation of women, by trying to bestow them with equal status as that of the men.

Language, Script, and Literature

• The Chinese language is one of the oldest written languages in the world. It has a logographic script, where each individual grapheme represents a word.

• The language of communication for many years during the pre-modern period was the classical Chinese language.

• One of the earliest references of written script can be traced to the Oracle bones belonging to the Shang dynasty). Oracle bones were used for divinations. The questions to be asked were carved on the bones with a sharp tool in the Oracle bone script. The diviner would then heat the bone, which would cause it to crack. He then interpreted the cracks and wrote the inferences on a shell or a bone.

• During the Zhou dynasty, cinnabar ink and brush began to be used, which led to writing, calligraphy, and drawing on silk.

• Later on, paper and printing were also invented, developed, and widely used. The writers, poets, philosophers, and scholars garnered a special respect in the imperial court.

• Literary works like Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian, Analects by Confucius, Tao Te Ching by Laozi, Water Margin by Shi Nai’an, Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong, Journey to the West by Wu Cheng’en, Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin, Book of Songs by Qu Yuan, Lessons for women by Ban Zhao and Eighteen Verses Sung to a Barbarian Whistle by poetess Cai Wenji have made notable contributions to Chinese literature.

Education

• The Chinese scholars set up government educational establishments for training the children.

• Five national schools to teach the Six Arts to the children of the noble men were set up during the Shang and the Zhou dynasties.

• Around the Spring and Autumn period as well as the Warring States period, education gained popularity, even among the common people.

• Confucius encouraged private teaching for all ages and hierarchies by starting his own schools. He delineated his own philosophy and principles to the students. After this effort, many private schools came into existence.

• Both the private and government schools trained students for taking the imperial exams for gaining various jobs in the royal court.

• Elders and family members imparted ‘family education’ which stressed on morals, social responsibilities, and attainment of wisdom.

• As compared to men, very few women were educated. Their reading was mostly limited to books that instructed them about moral behavior and their duties towards men.

The customs and traditions of the ancient Chinese people differed greatly from one region to the other. Till today, the principles and teachings of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Legalism continue to influence the lives of many people worldwide. Be it history, mythology, cuisine, literature or music, the ancient Chinese culture still represents its uniqueness over other cultures of the world.


1: The Development of Human Societies SECTION 1 QUIZ

1 1 1: The Development of Human Societies SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 How is a fossil different from an artifact? A A fossil is the remains of a long-ago organism, while an artifact is a human-made object. B A fossil is a type of tool, while an artifact is a human-made object. C A fossil is a written record, while an artifact is the remains of a long-ago organism. D A fossil is a type of tool, while an artifact is a written record. 2 Which of the following is a characteristic of the culture of some early Homo sapiens? A They were able to run long distances. B They built complex cities. C They buried their dead. D They lived during the Paleolithic Age. 3 Why did East Africans start migrating to the Sahara around 100,000 years ago? A They needed more farmland. B An ice age had begun in East Africa. C The Sahara had turned into an oasis. D They wanted to move closer to the ocean. 5 How did the Ice Age make migration to the Americas possible? A It increased the amount of food in North America. B It allowed people to travel in boats from Asia to North America. C It encouraged people to leave the desert conditions in Asia. D It created a land bridge between Siberia and North America. 6 The paintings in the Lascaux Cave contain mostly images of what? A grasslands that were growing in areas that are now desert B handprints, which are most likely those of teenage boys C events in the daily lives of aborigines D animals, some of which are now extinct 4 Where did Paleolithic people go after they left Africa? A southern Europe B Southwest Asia C North America D Australia 7 What were some of the ways in which Paleolithic people adapted to local conditions when they moved to new areas? 8 How does cave art reveal the cultures of early humans? 1 SECTION 1 QUIZ

2 QUIZ 1 1: The Development of Human Societies SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 Which of the following describes huntergatherers? A They lived in fixed locations with large family groups. B They moved with the groups of animals they relied on for food. C They grew crops in various locations, depending on the season. D They were the first to domesticate plants and animals. 2 How did the changing climate encourage domestication? A The climate became warmer, making longer growing seasons. B The climate became drier, leading to more deserts. C The climate became colder, causing people to move south. D Ice sheets grew larger, leading to more land bridges. 3 Why did some early humans settle near estuaries? A They provided protection from rival groups and shelter for homes. B They mostly occurred in areas with mild climates and few wild animals. C There was little danger of excess water or flooding in these areas. D They provided both salt water and fresh water along with fertile land. 4 What marked the start of the Neolithic Age? A people living in large groups rather than in small extended families B the agricultural revolution C the use of teamwork in hunting wild animals D more people living as nomads 5 How can radiologists help historians learn about the past? A They can look at weapons to determine how people hunted. B They can examine DNA to trace human ancestry and migration patterns. C They can interpret detailed x-rays of things we cannot see with our eyes. D They can examine soil layers to determine climate changes over time. 6 Which of these is a primary source? A a climate map of the ancient world created by a modern scientist B a cave painting created by a Paleolithic person C a textbook on the lives of early humans D a novel describing events in the life of an imaginary early human 7 How were the lives of hunter-gatherers different from those of early farmers? 8 What is one example of a source that a historian might write? Would this be a primary or a secondary source? 1 SECTION 2 QUIZ

3 1 2: Origins of Civilization SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 Why are cultural hearths important? A They led to humans leaving Africa for other parts of the world. B They allowed new ideas, practices, and technology to develop. C They encouraged people to live as nomads. D They shared inventions by trading with one another. 2 Which of the following describes the village of Çatalhöyük? A It is one of the most advanced settlements from the Paleolithic Age. B It is one of the world s oldest permanent settlements. C It was located in northern Africa. D It was in the Tehuacán Valley. 3 Why did maize become an important crop in Oaxaca? A It could produce a lot of food in a small space. B It required very little water. C It was developed from a grass called teosinte. D It was relied on for the annual food supply. 4 How did the Longshan culture differ from the Yangshao? A The Longshan made pottery. B The Longshan developed trade networks. C The Longshan grew millet. D The Longshan raised pigs and chickens. 5 What river system supported Faiyum? A Huang He B Chang Jiang C Nile D Tigris 6 In what way was Faiyum different from Oaxaca? A Faiyum borrowed its agricultural practices from other areas, while Oaxaca did not. B Faiyum was developed later than Oaxaca. C Faiyum began during the Paleolithic Age, while Oaxaca began during the Neolithic Age. D Faiyum farmers grew maize, while Oaxaca farmers grew wheat and barley. 7 Describe some of the geographical features that all the ancient cultural hearths had in common. 8 Why was it important that communities such as Çatalhöyük were able to grow surpluses of food? 2 SECTION 1 QUIZ

4 1 2: Origins of Civilization SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 Which of the following best describes Göbekli Tepe? A an apartment house B a government building C a place of worship D a central market area 2 What is monumental architecture? A colorful murals that decorated the outside of buildings B groups of homes built close together, without streets or sidewalks C massive gravesites D large structures built for specific purposes 5 Why were scribes important? A They worked with metals such as bronze. B They performed religious ceremonies. C They made pots to store gain and hold water. D They recorded traditions and laws. 6 Why was metallurgy a key development? A It allowed people to store food for long periods. B Making tools from metal did not require as much skill as making them from stone. C Stronger and more complex tools could be made. D People could build vehicles, such as carts, that used wheels. 3 What development in human society came after the ancient cultural hearths? A toolmaking B matrilineal clans C farming villages D civilizations 4 What was at the heart of cities in early civilizations? A people s homes B trading centers C temples and other religious buildings D schools and libraries 7 How did the food surpluses lead to the rise of civilization? 8 What are the five traits of civilization? 2 SECTION 2 QUIZ

5 2 3: Ancient Mesopotamia SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 What gave rise to civilization in Mesopotamia? A fertile soil for farming B open land for exploration C river and sea routes for trade D mountains for protection 2 How was the civilization of Sumer organized? A into roving bands of hunter-gatherers B into small temporary villages C into separate city-states D into one central city and surrounding farms 3 What purpose did ziggurats serve? A centers of government B centers of learning C centers of religious worship D centers of trade 5 How did Sargon win loyalty within the Akkadian Empire? A by collecting tribute to maintain a strong military B by conquering many lands at once C by limiting trade and economic activity D by permitting people to keep local customs and rulers 6 Why did Sargon s Akkadian Empire fall? A It emphasized farming over trade. B It failed to protect its natural resources. C It grew too big to maintain order. D It spent too much money on conquest. 4 What basic form of writing based on images of objects was first invented by the Sumerians? A pictographs B cuneiform C hieroglyphics D petroglyphs 7 How did ancient Mesopotamians adapt to their environment to build a Sumerian civilization? 8 What cultural and technological innovations did the Sumerians develop? 3 SECTION 1 QUIZ

6 2 3: Ancient Mesopotamia SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 How did Hammurabi s laws change life in Mesopotamia? A They eliminated punishments for crimes. B They applied to all classes of people equally. C They were specific to each part of the empire. D They were written down for everyone to see. 2 How did the Assyrians come to rule so many lands and peoples? A through economic prosperity B through fair laws and peaceful rulers C through superior iron weapons D through unified religious faith 5 Why did Darius I have the 1,500-mile-long Royal Road built? A to transport troops to areas of new conquest B to give people jobs working on the road C to make communication across the empire easier D to mark the boundaries of the provinces 6 What Mesopotamian invention had a lasting impact on mathematics? A abacus B calendar C cuneiform D plow 3 What important aspect of their culture did the Phoenicians spread to trading partners? A their alphabet B their calendar system C their farm system D their weaponry 4 How did Cyrus the Great treat conquered peoples? A He honored local customs and traditions. B He removed local leaders and laws. C He required them to pay high tributes. D He united them with a system of roads. 7 How did the Phoenicians help shape civilization in the ancient world? 8 What impact did the ancient Mesopotamians have on ideas about government? 3 SECTION 2 QUIZ

7 2 4: Ancient Egypt SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 What enabled the growth of agriculture and civilization in the Nile River Valley? A dry red land B fertile coastal soil C predictable flooding D regular rainfall 2 What geographic feature provided a natural barrier to protect ancient Egypt against invasion? A desert lands B extensive mountains C several large seas D vast river systems 3 How did agriculture change Egyptian society? A kept wealth among farmers B led to rise of kings C organized people into city-states D removed distinctions between Upper and Lower Egypt 5 What was the role of Egypt s viziers? A to command the military forces B to determine the succession of pharaohs C to oversee day-to-day governing D to perform religious ceremonies 6 How does remote sensing and satellite imagery help archaeologists in Egypt today? A It restores buried sites to their original forms. B It reveals the migration patterns of ancient Egyptians. C It shows them where to excavate artifacts and ruins. D It tells them what life was like in ancient Egypt. 4 What did the double crown of Egypt symbolize? A interdependence of red land and black land B joint rule of pharaohs and viziers C shared importance of farming and trade D union of Upper and Lower Egypt 7 Why did Egyptian civilization emerge where it did? 8 How were religion and government related in ancient Egypt? 4 SECTION 1 QUIZ

8 2 4: Ancient Egypt SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 What purpose did pyramids serve? A as centers of government B as markets for trade C as temples for religious worship D as tombs for the pharaohs 2 Which group of people made up the lowest class in the Egyptian social hierarchy? A artisans and merchants B farmers and soldiers C officials and scribes D slaves and unskilled laborers 3 Which god did Egyptians believe weighed their hearts after death? A Anubis B Osiris C Ra D Thoth 5 Which choice best describes the Egyptian Book of the Dead? A a collection of hymns sung at burials B a guidebook to the journey into the afterlife C a religious poem read aloud at festivals D a story recounting a popular epic adventure 6 What event marked the start of the Middle Kingdom? A a civil war among rival groups B a lengthy period of famine C the conquest of the Hyksos D the rule of Mentuhotep II 4 Why did Egyptians make mummies? A to honor the ghosts of ancestors B to provide a body for the spirit after death C to protect the tombs of pharaohs D to worship their gods 7 What characterized Egyptian religion? 8 How did the Middle Kingdom differ from the Old Kingdom? 4 SECTION 2 QUIZ

9 2 4: Ancient Egypt SECTION 3 QUIZ 1 For what good did Egypt largely trade? A food B iron C timber D wine 2 What accomplishment marked the reign of Hatshepsut? A defeat of the Hyksos B destruction of monuments C expansion of trade D separation of Upper and Lower Egypt 5 Where was Tutankhamen buried? A the Great Pyramid B the palace at Thebes C the temple at Abu Simbel D the Valley of the Kings 6 What natural resource helped Kush become a powerful kingdom? A bronze B gold C soil D wood 3 How did Ramses the Great restore peace and prosperity to Egypt? A by conquering neighbors B by expanding trade C by defeating the Sea Peoples D by negotiating a treaty with the Hittites 4 What ethnic background did Cleopatra VII, the last of the pharaohs, have? A Hittite B Macedonian C Persian D Roman 7 How did the rule of Egyptian pharaohs come to an end? 8 What was remarkable about Tutankhamen and the tomb in which he was buried? 4 SECTION 3 QUIZ

10 2 4: Ancient Egypt SECTION 4 QUIZ 1 For what were hieroglyphs used? A engineering B farming C stargazing D writing 2 What was papyrus? A a person trained to do bookkeeping B a picture representing an object or idea C a sheet of material used for writing D a tool used to inscribe symbols in stone 3 Mummification helped ancient Egyptians learn about which of the following disciplines? A anatomy B astronomy C engineering D mathematics 5 Which technique did ancient Egyptian artists use? A They depicted as much of the human figure as possible. B They used abstract shapes and geometric patterns. C They were impressionistic and mysterious. D They tried to show people, animals, and places realistically. 6 What did the ancient Greeks adopt from Egyptian architects? A the concept of zero B the decimal system C the golden ratio D the use of hieroglyphs 4 Skill in which subject enabled the Egyptians to build pyramids and other monuments? A archaeology B geography C geometry D medicine 7 Why did scribes gain importance and power in Egyptian society? 8 How did Egyptians apply skills in science and math to advance their civilization? 4 SECTION 4 QUIZ

11 2 5: Judaism and the Israelite Kingdoms SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 Which city is the religious center of Judaism? A Babylon B Damascus C Jerusalem D Ur 2 What is the location of Canaan? A the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea B between Italy and Greece C the west coast of Italy D the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea 3 According to the Hebrew Bible, who was chosen by God to lead the Exodus from Egypt? A Moses B Deborah C Joshua D Abraham 5 Which of the following is NOT a belief or practice of the Israelites? A monotheism B marrying outside their faith C resting on the Sabbath D eating only kosher foods 6 Who led the Israelites to victory in the Battle of Mount Tabor? A Moses B Abraham C Joshua D Deborah 4 What is the term for a religion based on the worship of a single God? A polytheism B Judaism C monotheism D idolatry 7 What is the difference between the Torah and the Talmud? 8 Why are the Ten Commandments still important today? 5 SECTION 1 QUIZ

12 2 5: Judaism and the Israelite Kingdoms SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 The Israelites chose a king to lead them in war against which group of people? A Canaanites B Assyrians C Philistines D Babylonians 2 Who was the first king of Israel? A Moses B Saul C David D Solomon 3 Which empire defeated the northern kingdom of Israel? A Assyrian B Egyptian C New Babylonian D Persian 5 The king of which empire tried to make the Jews worship Greek gods? A Assyria B New Babylonia C Seleucid D Rome 6 Which event celebrates the dedication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem? A the Babylonian Exile B the Diaspora C Masada D Hanukkah 4 Which leader encouraged the Jewish people to return to their homeland? A Solomon B Nebuchadnezzar C Cyrus the Great D Yohannan Ben Zakai 7 What happened to the ten tribes of Israel when they were conquered in 722 b.c.? 8 What are two ways in which the Babylonian Exile made Judaism stronger? 5 SECTION 2 QUIZ

13 2 6: Ancient India SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 What are the two major rivers of northern India? A the Tigris and the Euphrates B the Harappan and the Hindu Kush C the Indus and the Ganges D the Mohenjo-Daro and the Harappa 2 Which Indian civilization emerged first? A Harappan B Brahman C Ayran D Hindu 3 Which of the following statements is true of Harappan civilization? A The Harappan civilization fell to Aryan invaders. B Harappan writings have told historians much about their culture. C There were only weak ties between the cities. D Its influence was greater than that of ancient Egypt. 5 The social class system of the Aryans developed into which of the following? A Brahmanism B reincarnation C caste system D Buddhism 6 What is the term for Buddha s teachings, or divine law? A nirvana B Four Noble Truths C dharma D Bhagavad Gita 4 The winter winds on the South Asia subcontinent are called what? A dry monsoons B wet monsoons C typhoons D karma 7 What factors came together around 2500 b.c. that allowed a civilization in the Indus Valley to develop? 8 How are the terms reincarnation and karma connected in Hindu belief? 6 SECTION 1 QUIZ

14 2 6: Ancient India SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 Who helped Chandragupta gain power? A Asoka, a Buddhist B Kautilya, a Brahmin C Kalidasa, a great poet D Chandra Gupta I 2 How did the roads built by Asoka make his empire stronger? A The roads had plenty of shade and water. B The roads were good for trade, communication, and quick travel. C The roads connected the hospitals built by Asoka. D He did not build any roads. 5 Which Indian leader inspired Martin Luther King, Jr.? A Asoka B Mohandas Gandhi C Chandra Gupta D Kalidasa 6 Which of the following is a contribution of ancient India to modern medicine? A the concept of zero B architecture C nonviolence toward animals D the practice of inoculation 3 India s golden age was during the reign of which ruler? A Chandragupta B Asoka C Chandra Gupta I D Chandra Gupta II 4 Why was Kalidasa important? A He was one of India s greatest writers. B He established the Gupta Empire. C He wrote the Mahabharata. D He taught Ayurveda to the king. 7 How did Asoka spread Buddhism beyond India? 8 How did ancient India contribute to mathematics? 6 SECTION 2 QUIZ

15 2 7: Ancient China SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 Which of the following is a desert that formed part of China s natural barriers? A the Himalaya B the Taklimakan C the Tian Shan D the Pamir 2 What is another name for the Chang Jiang River? A Yellow River B Indus River C Tigris River D Yangtze River 3 Which was the earliest Chinese dynasty for which evidence exists? A Xia B Zhou C Liangzhu D Shang 5 What was the concept of Mandate of Heaven? A It was the result of the dynastic cycle. B It was the belief that a king could rule only as long as the gods believed him worthy. C It emphasized living in harmony with nature and the Dao. D It was a philosophy that encouraged a strong government and laws. 6 Which Chinese philosophy focuses on living in harmony with nature and the Way? A Confucianism B Daoism C Legalism D Mandate of Heaven 4 Where did China s first dynasty develop? A along the Huang He B at the foot of the Tian Shan C beside the East China Sea D along the Chang Jiang 7 How did natural barriers help shape China s civilization? 8 What was the dynastic cycle? 7 SECTION 1 QUIZ

16 2 7: Ancient China SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 Who called himself first emperor? A Liu Bang B Shi Huangdi C Lü D Wudi 2 Shi Huangdi followed which Chinese philosophy? A Confucianism B Buddhism C Legalism D Daoism 3 Which of the following was NOT an accomplishment of Shi Huangdi? A a single writing system B a government bureaucracy C canals and irrigation systems D standardized weights and measures 5 What was invented during the Han dynasty to show direction? A sextant B silk C wheelbarrow D compass 6 Which invention allowed ideas to spread farther and faster than ever? A paper B silk C compass D wheelbarrow 4 Who became known as Empress Lü? A the last emperor of the Qin dynasty B Liu Bang s wife C a notable bureaucrat of the Han dynasty D the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history 7 What was the purpose of the Great Wall of China? 8 What are two ways in which the Han emperors ruled differently from Shi Huangdi? 7 SECTION 2 QUIZ

17 2 7: Ancient China SECTION 3 QUIZ 1 Why were camels used on the Silk Roads? A They were the least expensive animal available. B Camels are strong, sure-footed, and tough. C Camels are native to China. D Camels bite and spit, which makes them excellent guard animals. 2 What goods were brought from China to the West? A grapes, lacquerware, and paper B wool rugs, paper, and silk C silk, paper, and lacquerware D honey, silk, and paper 5 What religion from India spread into China and throughout East Asia? A Hinduism B Confucianism C Legalism D Buddhism 6 How long ago does Fredrik Hiebert conclude traders began traveling along the Silk Roads? A 4,000 or 5,000 years ago B 2,000 or 3,000 years ago C 1,500 or 2,000 years ago D 1,000 to 500 years ago 3 What goods were taken to China from Europe? A honey and grapes B grapes and wool rugs C silk and carved ivory D camels and horses 4 How did traders protect themselves on the Silk Roads? A They traveled alone to avoid being noticed. B They traveled at night to avoid being seen. C They traveled in groups called caravans. D They hired guards called caravans. 7 What were the Silk Roads? 8 How did the Silk Roads encourage cultural diffusion? 7 SECTION 3 QUIZ

18 3 8: Ancient Greece SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 Which activity enabled the spread of Minoan civilization from Crete to Greece and other Aegean islands? A agriculture B bull-leaping C metal-work D sea trade 2 Which class of people earned fine houses and lands to rule in exchange for their service? A artisans B merchants C priests D warriors 5 What circumstance led to war among city-states from 750 to 550 b.c.? A competition for trade B conflicting political systems C different religious practices D scarcity of resources 6 What did Greek city-states do to relieve overpopulation? A began farming B built larger cities C established colonies D expanded trade 3 Who was Homer? A a Minoan king who ruled Knossos B a Mycenaean warrior who conquered Crete C a Greek poet who wrote The Iliad D a Trojan prince who started a war with Greece 4 Which statement describes early Greek city-states? A They each developed their own system of government. B They each experimented with different forms of monarchy. C They each identified themselves as Greek. D They each had their own language and cultural traditions. 7 How have the Iliad and the Odyssey contributed to our understanding of ancient Greece? 8 How did geography affect ancient Greek city-states? 8 SECTION 1 QUIZ

19 3 8: Ancient Greece SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 How did Sparta differ from other city-states? A It was a military society. B It excluded women from civic life. C It rejected religious practice. D It banned slavery. 2 How did Spartan government work? A It centered on a tribunal of warriors elected from their regiments. B It relied on a merchant oligarchy to make and administer laws. C It shared power among kings, an elite council, and elected officials. D It was ruled by tyrants who derived their power from war-making. 3 How did Athenian society differ from Spartan society? A Athenians valued education. B Athenians granted women more freedoms. C Athenians depended on enslaved workers for food. D Athenians avoided violence and warfare. 5 What event brought Athens and Sparta together? A conflict with neighboring city-states B conquest of the Ionians C trade with the Sea Peoples D war with the Persian Empire 6 What was significant about the Battle of Thermopylae? A A small number of Spartans held off a large number of Persians. B Athenians and Spartans joined forces to defeat the Persians. C The Ionians staged a revolt against the Persian Empire. D The Persians overwhelmed the combined Greek armies. 4 What prompted Darius I of the Persian Empire to attack Greece? A Athens and Sparta forged an alliance. B Athens disrupted Persian trade routes. C Athens supported the Ionian revolt. D Athens took control of Persian colonies. 7 How did childhood in Sparta differ from that in Athens? 8 How did Spartan government differ from Athenian government? 8 SECTION 2 QUIZ

20 3 9: Classical Greece SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 Under Cleisthenes reforms, who could participate in Athenian government? A all male and female citizens of Athens B all male citizens born in Athens C only male property owners born in Athens D only wealthy male citizens of Athens 2 What reform did Pericles make? A cancelled citizens debts B freed enslaved farmers C organized citizens into four classes D paid jurors and public officials 3 Why did Athens and other Greek city-states form the Delian League? A to colonize the Mediterranean B to counter the Peloponnesian League C to defend against the Persian Empire D to share natural resources and trade 5 For what god did ancient Greeks build the largest temple in a city-state? A for the king of the gods B for the god or goddess of war C for their favorite Olympian D for their patron god or goddess 6 In Greek mythology, what god did Icarus offend by flying too close to the sun? A Apollo B Athena C Hera D Zeus 4 What city-state started the Peloponnesian League? A Athens B Delos C Corinth D Sparta 7 Why did Solon s and Cleisthenes reforms fail to institute a truly democratic form of government? 8 What influence did ancient Greeks believe gods and goddesses had on their lives? 9 SECTION 1 QUIZ

21 3 9: Classical Greece SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 The Peloponnesian War broke out between which powers? A Athens and Sparta B Athens and the Delian League C Greece and Persia D Greece and Troy 2 During the Peloponnesian War, what other disaster did Athens face, besides attacks from Sparta? A drought B famine C internal revolt D plague 5 What Athenian historian recorded the events of the Peloponnesian War? A Herodotus B Homer C Pericles D Thucydides 6 Why were ostracons made and cast? A to banish citizens thought to be dangerous B to elect citizens as representatives C to select citizens for military service D to vote on laws in the citizens assembly 3 What event ended the truce between Athens and Sparta? A Athens disbanding of the Delian League B Athens siege of Syracuse C Sparta s alliance with Persia D Sparta s attack on Sicily 4 What action did Sparta take against a defeated Athens? A burned all of the city s ships and temples B destroyed the city-state and surrounding lands C enslaved most of the city s citizens D replaced the city s democracy with an oligarchy 7 What causes led to the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War? 8 Why did the war end the way that it did? 9 SECTION 2 QUIZ

22 3 9: Classical Greece SECTION 3 QUIZ 1 What ruler united Greece under Macedonian rule? A Achilles B Alexander C Aristotle D Philip II 2 How did Macedonian forces overwhelm and defeat Greek armies? A by destroying their sea power B by fighting with a phalanx formation C by razing their farms and towns D by starving them through a prolonged siege 3 What lands did Alexander the Great conquer first? A Egypt B India C Persia D Uzbekistan 5 What word describes the geographic spread of Hellenistic Greek culture? A decolonization B denunciation C diffusion D dissipation 6 What city became the center of Hellenistic Greek culture? A Alexandria B Athens C Corinth D Thebes 4 Why did Alexander s empire stop when and where it did? A He could not cross the mountains of Asia. B His had conquered all of the lands that he wanted. C His forces had run out of food and other supplies. D His soldiers were war-weary and wanted to go home. 7 What made Greece vulnerable to conquest by Macedonia? 8 How did Alexander the Great surpass his father? 9 SECTION 3 QUIZ

23 3 9: Classical Greece SECTION 4 QUIZ 1 Which Greek philosopher became known for his question-and-answer teaching style? A Aristotle B Plato C Socrates D Xenophon 2 What did the Greek author Aesop write? A fables that teach moral lessons B histories of Greek wars C mythologies about Greek deities D treatises on philosophy 3 What art form, performed in amphitheaters, formed a center of Greek cultural life? A comedic and tragic plays B readings of epic poetry C lessons in rhetoric D public political debates 4 Ancient Greeks are best known for what type of art? A abstract and geometric mosaics B paintings of mythological beasts and deities C sculptures of the human form D tapestries depicting historic events 5 What common Greek architectural feature does the Parthenon display? A arches B columns C domes D turrets 6 How did ancient Greek courts resemble those of the United States? A They included summaries of evidence. B They protected against cruel and unusual punishment. C They provided for a trial by jury. D They secured citizens the right to an attorney. 7 What significant contributions to learning did Aristotle make? 8 What aspects of Athenian democracy did the United States adopt? 9 SECTION 4 QUIZ

24 4 10: The Roman Republic SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 Which river made Rome a natural stopping point for trade? A the Mediterranean B the Apennines C the Tiber D the Nile 2 Which people greatly influenced early Rome? A the Etruscans and Latins B the Greeks and Etruscans C the Latins D the Spartans 3 How did the plebeians gain more power in Roman government? A by attacking the patricians B by demanding that Roman laws be written down C by electing leaders that favored plebeians over patricians D by going on strike and causing the patricians to lose money 5 How did the establishment of the Roman Republic affect the Forum? A It caused the Forum to be used as a burial ground. B It led to the neglect and ruin of the Forum. C It turned the Forum into an open-air market. D It made the Forum the center of Roman politics. 6 Which of the following contributed to Rome s thriving agriculture? A low altitude and a good water supply B fertile soil and a mild climate C few pests and fertile soil D advanced farming techniques and many farmers 4 What role did dictators play in Rome s representative government? A They held complete control but only during times of crisis. B They advised the consuls. C They held the right to veto, or reject, other rulers decisions. D They elected representatives called tribunes. 7 What is the legendary story of the founding of Rome? How is this legend supported by archaeology? 8 What could a Roman citizen do and see in the Roman Forum once the Roman Republic was founded? 10 SECTION 1 QUIZ

25 4 10: The Roman Republic SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 Which term best describes ancient Roman society? A paterfamilias B patriarchy C plebeian D dictatorship 2 Which two factors most strongly determined the amount of education a Roman child would receive? A ethnicity and family wealth B marital status and good looks C age and gender D gender and family wealth 3 What role did slaves play in Rome s economy? A They provided much of the manual labor needed to build, farm, and mine. B They were usually teachers, doctors, or business managers. C They made purchases that helped make Rome s patricians very wealthy. D They had no value in Rome s economy. 5 Which human trait was most valued by the Romans? A beauty B elegance C loyalty D grace 6 How did the land purchases of wealthy Romans affect the lives of poorer citizens? A The wealthy would buy up small farms, forcing poor farmers to find work in cities. B The wealthy would force poor farmers to work on their land for free. C The wealthy would purchase land and sell it to poor farmers for twice as much. D The wealthy would create huge farms worked entirely by patricians. 4 Who controlled the slave army that famously rebelled in 73 b.c.? A Cicero B the Council of Plebs C Spartacus D Romulus and Remus 7 How did Romans worship their gods in daily life? 8 What role did the concept of gravitas play in the Roman personality? 10 SECTION 2 QUIZ

26 4 10: The Roman Republic SECTION 3 QUIZ 1 Why was Marius forced to allow volunteers in his army? A Most of his soldiers had been killed in battle. B Property-owning citizens no longer wanted to fight long wars far from Rome. C Most men didn t have the right weapons and equipment to fight in the army. D Property-owning citizens were demanding higher pay to serve in the army. 2 Why were Roman armies considered unstoppable? A Soldiers were treated kindly and were never punished if they failed. B The armies were small but well trained. C Roman soldiers had weapons that were better than the weapons of other armies. D If a Roman army was defeated, Rome would simply send a larger army the next time. 3 Which words best describe Roman armor? A outdated and ineffective B complicated and heavy C attractive but impractical D simple and light 4 How did being defeated by Carthage at sea improve Rome s navy? A The Romans fired their generals and brought in more successful ones. B Rome and Carthage became allies. C The Romans added many powerful warships to their navy. D The Carthaginians gave the Roman navy their unused ships. 5 What were likely to have been Hannibal s biggest challenges when he crossed the Alps during winter? A weather and difficult terrain B enemy attacks and starvation C poorly trained troops and enemy attacks D lack of supplies and illness 6 Why was Rome forced to make peace with Macedonia during the First Macedonian War? A Roman soldiers were no match for the Macedonian phalanx. B Rome s army was busy fighting against Philip V and couldn t battle Hannibal. C The Roman army needed a fresh supply of weapons and soldiers. D Rome s army was busy fighting against Hannibal and couldn t battle Philip V. 7 Why are Hannibal s military tactics still studied today? 8 How did the Romans ensure that Carthage would cease to exist? 10 SECTION 3 QUIZ

27 4 10: The Roman Republic SECTION 4 QUIZ 1 Which problems resulted from the Roman Republic s expansion after the Punic Wars? A disease and widespread hunger B overpopulation and disease C conflicts with neighboring lands and peoples D poverty and unemployment 2 Which two Roman generals were given extraordinary powers by the Senate to put down a slave rebellion? A Sulla and Marius B Caesar and Crassus C Crassus and Pompey D Tiberius and Marius 5 Which statement best describes Julius Caesar? A popular with the Senate but hated by the people B popular with the people but hated by the Senate C popular with the people but hated by his soldiers D hated by the Roman Republic 6 What happened on the Ides of March in 44 b.c.? A Caesar declared himself a dictator. B Caesar was married to Cleopatra VII. C Caesar was murdered by a group of senators. D The Roman Republic was transformed into an empire. 3 What did Cicero argue for to repair the damaged republic? A making the Senate and army stronger B reducing the army s powers and restoring the system of checks and balances C giving slaves and plebeians more power and taking land from the rich D starting a civil war to take power from the Senate 4 To whom did the Senate turn when its power was taken by the consuls in 70 b.c.? A Julius Caesar B General Crassus C General Pompey D The First Triumvirate 7 Why was the Senate resistant to Julius Caesar s reforms? 8 Which factors and events contributed to the end of the Roman Republic? 10 SECTION 4 QUIZ

28 4 11: The Roman Empire and Christianity SECTION 1 QUIZ 1 Who was the first emperor of Rome? A Augustus B Julius Caesar C Titus D Tiberius 2 What was the Pax Romana? A a period of peace and prosperity which began under Augustus B an illness that spread during the summer in Rome C a series of aqueducts bringing water to Rome D a phrase meaning All roads lead to Rome 3 What did Rome use to improve trade, collect taxes, and pay soldiers? A the Pax Romana B a credit system C standardized pay for the army D a standard currency 5 Which of the following statements about Pompeii is true? A Pompeii was destroyed by a huge earthquake. B It was destroyed over a period of several years. C It provides a revealing glimpse into everyday Roman life. D Pompeii was frozen in time under a blanket of mud. 6 What were the beautiful country homes of wealthy Romans called? A mosaics B vaults C villas D frescoes 4 What is an aqueduct? A a curved structure over an opening B a stone channel carrying clean water into a city C a rotated series of arches D an extended series of arches 7 What are some of Rome s long-standing problems that Augustus solved? 8 How did Roman engineers improve construction? 11 SECTION 1 QUIZ

29 4 11: The Roman Empire and Christianity SECTION 2 QUIZ 1 Early Christianity developed in which communities? A Greek B frontier outposts C Gentile D Jewish 2 What religion is based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth? A Judaism B Emperor worship C Christianity D the Appian Way 5 Which of the following was a parable told by Jesus? A The Grasshopper and the Ant B The Prodigal Son C Galatians D The Gospel of Luke 6 Which emperor put an end to the persecution of Christians? A Nero B Constantine C Theodosius D Diocletian 3 Who painted The Last Supper? A Constantine B Jesus of Nazareth C Leonardo da Vinci D the Good Samaritan 4 Which statement is true of Christianity? A Christianity promised a life of security and comfort. B Most Roman emperors encouraged Christianity. C Christianity discouraged sharing property and providing charity. D Its main appeal was the promise of salvation through the sacrifice of Jesus. 7 How did the Roman road network help spread Christianity? 8 Why was Paul important to the spread of Christianity? 11 SECTION 2 QUIZ

30 4 11: The Roman Empire and Christianity SECTION 3 QUIZ 1 Why was the size of the Roman Empire a problem? A The imperial currency lost value. B There were food shortages. C It was too big for one person to govern. D Criminal organizations grew in size. 2 Which of the following was a military reason that led to the decline of the Roman Empire? A Soldiers were fighting wars in the east, west, and at home. B Local leaders took power in many areas. C Unrest grew because of the gap between rich and poor. D People were heavily taxed, and trade was interrupted. 5 Which event came first? A The Visigoths sacked Rome. B The Roman Empire was divided into two parts. C Fifty different emperors ruled in the space of 50 years. D The last emperor quietly left the throne. 6 How did Diocletian and Maximian encourage economic recovery? A They had the wealthy half of the empire support the poorer half. B They reformed tax laws and controlled inflation. C They made the army smaller. D They retired after 20 years. 3 How did Diocletian try to save the empire? A He named four generals to govern the four parts of the empire. B He divided the empire into two parts and shared the rule with three other men. C He created a new tax system. D He made the army smaller. 4 What is a tetrarchy? A four countries linked together under one ruler B a vault formed by four arches C rule by four emperors D four key roads used to move troops quickly across the empire 7 What happened to the Western Roman Empire when the last emperor left the throne? 8 How did Diocletian solve the problem of ruling a huge empire? 11 SECTION 3 QUIZ

31 4 11: The Roman Empire and Christianity SECTION 4 QUIZ 1 What is oratory? A philosophical discussion B an epic poem C Latin literature D public speaking 2 On whose traditions did the Romans base their poetry? A the Greeks B the Latins C the Germans D the Byzantines 3 Which of the following words have Latin prefixes? A postwar and humidify B purify and submarine C entertainment and flexible D rebuild and disrespect 5 Who preserved Roman literature after the empire fell? A the Roman Catholic Church B Roman engineers C the Vandals D the Huns 6 Which sentence best describes the aqueducts that supplied water to Rome? A They were all beautiful pieces of architecture. B Some carried water above ground, and some used pipes underground. C Aqueducts brought water from as far away as 150 miles. D The system of aqueducts is still in use. 4 What is the name for realistic sculpture with figures raised against a flat background? A fresco B bas-relief C mosaic D arch 7 What are three examples of Rome s legacy in architecture? 8 What are Romance languages, and what is an example of a Romance language? 11 SECTION 4 QUIZ

32 5 12: Mesoamerica SECTION 1 QUIZ MULTIPLE CHOICE Choose the best answer for each question from the choices available. 1 Where can lowlands be found? A between the mountains of the Sierra Madre B in the jungles of the Yucatán C along the Pacific Ocean D around Monte Albán 2 What are the three main crops grown in the highlands? A maize, squash, beans B cacao, barley, maize C cacao, corn, beans D palm, wheat, squash 3 How did farmers who used slash-and-burn agriculture fertilize their land? A They used seaweed from coastal areas. B They grew plants, such as maize and beans, and then chopped them up for fertilizer. C They used the ash left from burning the plants and trees on the land. D They used the manure from the animals they raised. 4 Which of the following correctly lists the Olmec social order? A rulers, farmers, priests, merchants B priests, rulers, farmers, merchants C rulers, priests, merchants, farmers D priests, rulers, farmers, merchants 5 Why did the Zapotec build terraces? A as places to bury their dead B as locations for their pyramids C to use as ball courts D to create more land for farming 6 Why did the Zapotec culture begin in the Oaxaca Valley? A The valley had very fertile farmland. B The valley was near a sacred mountain. C The location gave them good protection from enemies. D Gold and silver were located there. 7 How did the Olmec civilization come to be the mother culture of Mesoamerica? 8 How would you describe Monte Albán? 12 SECTION 1 QUIZ

33 5 12: Mesoamerica SECTION 2 QUIZ MULTIPLE CHOICE Choose the best answer for each question from the choices available. 1 Which of the following best describes the land of the Maya? A It stretched along the Gulf of Mexico. B It was in the mountains. C It had very little fertile soil. D Its geography was extremely varied. 2 What city has been called the cradle of Maya civilization? A Chichén Itzá B Monte Albán C El Mirador D Tikal 3 Why might the Maya make a sacrifice to the maize god? A for a good harvest B for a long life C to have many children D to honor their king 4 What is true about the Maya city-states? A They were independent of one another. B They were all ruled by a single government. C Each one had its own separate gods. D They rarely traded with one another. 5 Which of the following describes the layout of a Maya city? A A large pyramid was surrounded by farm fields. B A central plaza served as a market. C The king lived in a pyramid at the city s center. D Pyramids surrounded the outside of the city. 6 How did the Maya use their mathematical skills? A to determine the size of their cities B to keep track of the king s money C to keep business records D to record astronomical observations 7 How did sports play a role in Maya religion? 8 How did living quarters differ for the upper and lower classes in Maya society? 12 SECTION 2 QUIZ

34 5 12: Mesoamerica SECTION 3 QUIZ MULTIPLE CHOICE Choose the best answer for each question from the choices available. 1 Where did Aztec nomads settle around a.d. 1300? A Teotihuacán B Copán C Yucatán D Valley of Mexico 2 What did the city-states under Aztec control get in return for the tribute they paid? A the right to govern themselves B temples to worship Aztec gods C protection D better farmland 3 How did Aztec nobles get their positions? A They inherited them. B They bought them from the king. C They made sacrifices at the temples. D The people elected them. 4 Which of the following lists the Aztec classes in order, from highest to lowest? A emperor, farmers, nobles, serfs B emperor, nobles, commoners, serfs and slaves C nobles, emperor, commoners, serfs and slaves D emperor, merchants, nobles, commoners, serfs and slaves 5 What shows that the Aztec were polytheistic? A Religion was central at all levels of society. B Even commoners had shrines in their homes. C Sometimes the Aztec sacrificed humans in religious ceremonies. D The Aztec worshipped up to 1,000 gods. 6 What demonstrated that the Aztec were skilled astronomers? A Their temples were built to line up with the sun and stars. B The farmers always had food surpluses. C Human sacrifices were made only when there was a full moon. D The Aztec were able to conquer many city-states in the region. 7 Why was the Triple Alliance important to the Aztec? 8 How were the conquistadors able to defeat the Aztec? 12 SECTION 3 QUIZ

35 5 13: South and North America SECTION 1 QUIZ MULTIPLE CHOICE Choose the best answer for each question from the choices available. 1 Which pre-inca culture was the greatest military power? A Moche B Nasca C Wari D Sicán 2 Which pre-inca culture produced enormous geoglyphs? A Moche B Nasca C Wari D Sicán 3 What ability did all four pre-inca cultures develop? A They were all skilled warriors. B All four cultures were skilled in creating ceramic statues. C They were all skilled in creating amazing geoglyphs. D All four cultures were skilled in working gold and other precious metals. 4 What was the Inca capital under Pachacuti? A Cusco B Ayacucho C Machu Picchu D Lima 5 In the Inca hierarchy, who oversaw the provisional governors, district officers, and local chiefs? A four prefects B the emperor C a foreman D groups of ten families 6 Which of the following did both Roman and Inca engineers produce? A arched doorways B domed buildings C stone aqueducts D enormous colosseums 7 What structures did Inca engineers build? 8 How did Machu Picchu survive Spanish conquest in the 1530s? 13 SECTION 1 QUIZ

36 5 13: South and North America SECTION 2 QUIZ MULTIPLE CHOICE Choose the best answer for each question from the choices available. 1 Which cultural group demonstrated their wealth and shared it through potlatches? A Great Plains tribes B Northwest Coast tribes C ancient Pueblo D mound builders 2 Why were totem poles built? A to honor a revered being or a family guardian B to show a tribe s relationship to the natural world C to honor the spirit of the buffalo D to guard the entrance to the chief s mound 3 What farming method allowed the ancient Pueblo to grow crops on their fields? A complex irrigation systems B slash-and-burn techniques C terrace farming D dry farming 4 Who interpreted the vision after a young man s vision quest? A the chief B a shaman C the confederation D powerful chiefs 5 What is considered to be the centerpiece of Cahokia? A Borrow Pit B Grand Plaza C Stockades D Monks Mound 6 Which groups shared the Green Corn Ceremony? A Cherokee and Creek B Algonquin and Iroquois C Hopewell and Adena D Tlingit and Haida 7 How did the climate and geography of the Pacific Northwest region encourage the development of Native American cultures? 8 How was Cahokia different from Mesa Verde s Cliff Palace? 13 SECTION 2 QUIZ

37 5 14: Dynasties of China SECTION 1 QUIZ MULTIPLE CHOICE Choose the best answer for each question from the choices available. 1 Which dynasty reunified China in a.d. 581? A Han B Sui C Tang D Song 2 Who was China s only official female emperor? A Wendi B Taizong C Wu Zhao D Yangdi 3 Which of the following made Yangdi unpopular with the people? A written examinations for the bureaucracy B granaries to protect the food supply C promotion of Buddhism D forced labor and high taxes 4 Which of the following was a Sui policy carried on by the Tang dynasty? A tolerance toward China s many religions and cultures B construction of the Grand Canal C making rice a staple crop D agricultural reform and trade 5 What event in a.d. 220 led China into a long period of chaos? A the introduction of Buddhism B the fall of Han dynasty C the invasion of the Mongols D the invention of gunpowder 6 A golden age of art and literature flourished during which dynasty? A Han B Sui C Tang D Song 7 What three very different belief systems were interwoven in Chinese society? 8 What were three Chinese inventions of the Tang and Song dynasties? 14 SECTION 1 QUIZ

38 5 14: Dynasties of China SECTION 2 QUIZ MULTIPLE CHOICE Choose the best answer for each question from the choices available. 1 Why did Genghis Khan invade China? A He wanted to secure the Silk Roads for his people. B His people needed more farmland. C The Mongol tribes needed more grazing lands. D The Mongol tribes needed a route to the East China Sea. 2 Where did the Mongols live before invading China? A They came from the steppes of northwest China. B They were shepherds in what is now Iran. C The Mongols had migrated to India from Arabia. D The Mongols came from southern Russia. 3 Who was the first ruler to unite all China since the end of the Tang dynasty? A Genghis Khan B Yuan Khan C Kublai Khan D Marco Polo 4 What was life like for the Chinese under Mongol rule? A The Chinese were well treated by their Mongol rulers. B The Chinese were kept in key government positions. C The Chinese were in a higher class than foreigners. D The Chinese were treated as second-class citizens. 5 How did the Mongols treat foreigners? A They did not allow foreigners in China. B They gave power and good jobs to foreigners. C They brought in foreigners as servants to Chinese nobility. D They hired foreigners as laborers on government projects. 6 How did travel on the Silk Roads change under the Mongols? A The Silk Roads were closed and trade ended by the Mongols. B Mongol control of the routes meant safer travel for the caravans. C The Mongols did not allow traders to take silk from China. D Kublai Khan personally decided how much to pay for trade goods. 7 What happened to the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan died? 8 How did Kublai Khan deal with the Song uprising? 14 SECTION 2 QUIZ

39 5 14: Dynasties of China SECTION 3 QUIZ MULTIPLE CHOICE Choose the best answer for each question from the choices available. 1 Which dynasty restored China s greatness after Mongol rule? A Yuan B Manchu C Ming D Qing 2 What did Hongwu do to help the lives of peasants? A He moved the imperial capital to Beijing. B He cut government spending and began efficient taxation. C Hongwu sponsored sea expeditions. D Hongwu favored a long period of isolationism. 3 What policy followed China s great period of world exploration? A increased foreign trade B waging the Opium Wars C building the Forbidden City D a long period of isolationism 4 Why did Zhengtong stop voyages of exploration? A He said they brought in dangerous foreign ideas. B He wanted to work on the Great Wall instead. C He felt they weakened China s defenses. D He could find no one to replace Zheng He. 5 Which group founded China s last dynasty? A pirate raiders from the southeast B Manchus from north of the Great Wall C Japanese invaders D invaders from Korea 6 What caused the end of dynastic rule in China? A Wars and European influences weakened the rulers, and the Qing dynasty fell. B China was invaded and occupied by Japan, causing the Qing dynasty to fall. C Internal conflict split China into many competing nations. D The last emperor died, allowing European powers to invade. 7 What was the purpose of Zheng He s sea expeditions? 8 How did the Chinese government enforce isolationism? 14 SECTION 3 QUIZ


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