Map of Alexander the Great's Conquests

Map of Alexander the Great's Conquests

Wars of Alexander the Great

The wars of Alexander the Great were a series of wars, fought over a span of thirteen years (from 336-323 BC), that were carried out by King Alexander III of Macedon (his moniker being Alexander "The Great"). The wars began with the battles against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under the rule of former King Darius III. After Alexander's chain of victories against Persia, he then began to skirmish with local chieftains and warlords stretching as far as modern-day Punjab, India. By the time of his death, he had conquered most of the known world. [1] He did not manage to conquer all of South Asia as was his initial plan. Although he was a very successful military commander, he did not provide any stable alternative to the Achaemenid Empire, [2] and his untimely death threw the vast territories he conquered into civil war.

Alexander assumed the kingship of Macedonia following the assassination of his father King Philip II. Philip, during his rule, had unified [3] most of the city-states of mainland Greece (of Macedonian hegemony) under a federation called the Hellenic League (also known as the League of Corinth). [4] Alexander proceeded to solidify Macedonian rule by quashing a rebellion that took place in the southern Greek city-states, and also staged a short but bloody excursion against the states to the north. He then proceeded east in order to carry out his plans to conquer the Achaemenid Persian Empire, which was then ruled by Darius III. His conquests included Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Judea, Gaza, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia and Bactria. He extended the boundaries of his empire as far as Taxila, India (now Pakistan).

Alexander had initially made plans, prior to his death, for military and mercantile expansion into the Arabian Peninsula, after of which he planned to turn his armies to the west (Carthage, Rome, and the Iberian Peninsula). However, Alexander's diadochi (being his rival generals, families, and friends) quietly abandoned these plans after he died. Instead, within a few years of Alexander's death, the diadochi began fighting with each other and divided up the Empire between themselves, triggering 40 years of warfare.

Alexander’s Conquests and the Rise of Hellenism

Alexander the Great (AKA Alexander of Macedon) had a short but remarkable life.

His conquests spanned Afro-Eurasia, reaching from North Africa to the the Indus valley, as shown in this map.

Alexander’s Empire By Generic Mapping Tools [GFDL ( or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

When Philonieus, the Thessalian, offered the horse named Bucephalus in sale to Philip [Alexander's father], at the price of thirteen talents, the king, with the prince and many others, went into the field to see some trial made of him. The horse appeared extremely vicious and unmanageable, and was so far from suffering himse lf to be mounted, that he would not bear to be spoken to, but turned fiercely on all the grooms. Philip was displeased at their bringing him so wild and ungovernable a horse, and bade them take him away. But Alexander, who had observed him well, said, “What a horse they are losing, for want of skill and spirit to manage him!” Philip at first took no notice of this, but, upon the prince’s often repeating the same expression, and showing great uneasiness, said, “Young man, you find fault with your elders, as if you knew more than they, or could manage the horse better.” “And I certainly could,” answered the prince. “If you should not be able to ride him, what forfeiture will you submit to for your rashness?” “I will pay the price of the horse.”

Upon this all the company laughed, but the king and prince agreeing as to the forfeiture, Alexander ran to the horse, and laying hold on the bridle, turned him to the sun for he had observed, it seems, that the shadow which fell before the horse, and continually moved as he moved, greatly disturbed him. While his fierceness and fury abated, he kept speaking to him softly and stroking him after which he gently let fall his mantle, leaped lightly upon his back, and got his seat very safe. Then, without pulling the reins too hard, or using either whip or spur, he set him a-going. As soon as he perceived his uneasiness abated, and that he wanted only to run, he put him in a full gallop, and pushed him on both with the voice and spur.

Philip and all his court were in great distress for him at first, and a profound silence took place. But when the prince had turned him and brought him straight back, they all received him with loud acclamations, except his father, who wept for joy, and kissing him, said, “Seek another kingdom, my son, that may be worthy of thy abilities for Macedonia is too small for thee…”

[Philip] sent for Aristotle, the most celebrated and learned of all the philosophers and the reward he gave him for forming his son Alexander was not only honorable, but remarkable for its propriety. He had formerly dismantled the city of Stagira, where that philosopher was born, and now he re-built it, and reestablished the inhabitants, who had either fled or been reduced to slavery… Aristotle was the man Alexander admired in his younger years, and, as he said himself, he had no less affection for him than for his own father…

[Alexander] was only twenty years old when he succeeded to the crown, and he found the kingdom torn into pieces by dangerous parties and implacable animosities. The barbarous nations, even those that bordered upon Macedonia, could not brook subjection, and they longed for their natural kings… Alexander was of opinion, that the only way to security, and a thorough establishment of his affairs, was to proceed with spirit and magnanimity. For he was persuaded, that if he appeared to abate of his dignity in the least article, he would be universally insulted. He therefore quieted the commotions, and put a stop to the rising wars among the barbarians, by marching with the utmost expediency as far as the Danube, where he fought a great battle…

The barbarians, we are told, lost in this battle twenty thousand foot and two thousand five hundred horse, whereas Alexander had no more than thirty-four men killed, nine of which were the infantry. To do honor to their memory, he erected a statue to each of them in brass, the workmanship of Lysippus. And that the Greeks might have their share in the glory of the day, he sent them presents out of the spoil: to the Athenians in particular he sent three hundred bucklers. Upon the rest of the spoils he put this pompous inscription, WON BY ALEXANDER THE SON OF PHILIP, AND THE GREEKS (EXCEPTING THE LACEDAEMONIANS), OF THE BARBARIANS IN ASIA. The greatest part of the plate, the purple furniture, and other things of that kind which he took from the Persians, he sent to his mother.

Question for consideration:
Alexander conquered a huge portion of the “known” world during his lifetime. What reason might Plutarch have had to tell this seemingly minor story about his youth and a horse? What larger point about Alexander might Plutarch have been trying to convey?

The History Guy

The Wars and Conquests of Alexander The Great

Alexander the Great, son of Philip of Macedon, became the greatest conquerer of the ancient world in a short twelve years, Alexander consolidated control over his native Balkans in Europe, invaded and conquered the mighty Persian Empire, subjugated the tribes of Central Asia and Afghanistan, and invaded India. At the time of his death, he also had plans to push his conquests into Arabia, Rome, Carthage, and what is now known as Spain. Alexander died at the age of 33, and his huge empire was divided among his warring generals. Among his legacies was the spread of Hellenistic (or Greek) culture into the Middle East, and Egypt. Some historians see Alexander as a civilizing force, by bringing Western (Greek) culture to the East, while other historians, look at the huge numbers of human deaths resulting from Alexander's wars, and compare him to other conquerers such as Hitler.

Whether he was a precurser to Caesar, Napoleon, or Hitler, one thing is certain Alexander the Great did spread Hellenic culture over an important part of the world, and his military genius was emulated by many conquerers and generals throughout history.

This page looks at the wars and conquests of Alexander the Great.

Alexander's Balkan Campaigns

Alexander of Macedon was only 19, when an assassin named Pausanias of Orestis, killed Alexander's father, Philip II, King of the Greek-speaking Kingdom of Macedon. Philip had forged a powerful military force and had conquered most of Greece and the surrounding Balkans. Philip's contribution to military history was not just in his son, Alexander the Great, but also (and perhaps more importantly), his development of the military formation known as theMacedonian Phalanx. Based on the famed Greek (or Spartan) Phalanx, which was the basic armed unit of Ancient Greek warfare. The phalanx was a formation of heavy infantry which sought out face-to-face combat with enemy formations. The Macedonian application of the phalanx was uniquely deadly with use of the sarissa, a very long and heavy spear(up to 20 feet long) that had to be held with two hands, as opposed to the earlier Spartan spear that was a one-handed thrusting weapon. This longer and heavier spear enabled the Macedonian phalanx to overwhelm and destroy the lighter-armed phalanxes of the southern Greeks. Thus, by the time of Philip's assassination in October 336 BC, at the age of 46, he had brought most of Greece, as well as Thrace, the region north of his native Macedonia, under his rule. It was this nascent empire and Philip's powerful and technologically superior veteran military that Alexander inherited.

Upon Philip's death, several rebellions broke out in the Greek regions he had conquered. Alexander's first task, before launching the invasion of Persia that his father had planned, was to crush those in rebellion to his rule. The rebel cities included Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, as well as the Thracian tribes to the north of Macedon. The Greek cities surrendered quickly, and they proclaimed him 'Hegemon' of the Greek forces against the Persians, the title that Philip had taken in preparation for the new Persian wars. Alexander then marched north with his army to put down the rebellion in Thrace.

In the terrritory north of Macedon, Alexander's army faced the forces of the Illyrians and the Triballi. He defeated them, and then marched to the Danube River where he defeated the Getae tribe. Alexander then marched to the Illyrian city of Pelium, which fell to him after a siege. With his rear now secure, Alexander could then march south to deal with the once-again rebellious cities of Thebes and Athens.

When Alexander entered the vicinity of Thebes and Athens, only the Thebans voted (as these cities practiced democracy, a Greek-invented political system whereby decisions were made by a vote of citizens), to go to war with Alexander to gain their freedom. Alexander's forces assaulted the city and made their way through an unguarded gate. After fierce street-by-street combat inside of the city, Thebes fell to the Macedonians. The city of Thebes was burnt to the ground, and 6,000 Thebans died in the battle, and 30,000 civilians, men, women, and children, were made captive and then sold into slavery. After the Battle of Thebes, in December, of 335 BC, none of the Greek city-states dared rise in rebellion against Alexander.

Alexander's pattern as a conquerer can be seen in how he defeated the various rebel cities and peoples. He ignored the advice of his generals and other advisors, many of whom urged caution. Instead, Alexander launched fast, heavy attacks on his foes, choosing to defeat them through the trauma of heavy combat and shock tactics. Cities that stood in his way, such as Thebes, were destroyed, their populations killed or sold into slavery. While Greek warfare of the past usually paid no mind to killing civilians in cold blood or selling losers into slavery, Alexander's conquests throughout Greece and Asia would drench the land with blood. Any city, nation, or tribe that opposed him faced utter destruction.

Map of Alexander the Great's Conquests

Courtesy of the United States Military Academy Department of History

1. Kohn, George C. Dictionary of Wars. New York: Facts On File Publications. 1986.

2. Hansen, Victor Davis. Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power (also available as a Kindle ebook at Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power (Kindle Edition)

3. Steems, Peter and William L. Langer., ed. An Encyclopedia of World History. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.

4. Banks, Arthur S., ed. Political Handbook of the World . 5th ed. Binghamton, NY: CQ Press, 2004.

5. R. Ernest, Dupuy, and Dupuy Trevor N. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 BC to the Present . New York: Harper & Row, 1970.

Which river shown on the map indicates the farthest extent of Alexander's conquest? (Alexander The Great) open the link to see the map.

The river shown on the map that indicates the farthest extent of Alexader's conquests is the Indus river. In his thirty-two years of life, his empire extended from Greece, to the Indus Valley in the East and to Egypt in the West, where he founded the city of Alexandria .

hope it helps u brother can I get branliest pls

The river shown on the map that indicates the farthest extent of Alexader's conquests is the Indus river.

In his thirty-two years of life, his empire extended from Greece, to the Indus Valley in the East and to Egypt in the West, where he founded the city of Alexandria . In total, his empire came to have a territorial extension of 5,200,000 km2.

Map of Alexander the Great's Conquests - History

Combine this map with any of our other maps via ClimateViewer 3D! Check out hundreds of maps and share custom maps!

In this documentary, in the form of a satellite map, you can zoom in on the actual cities conquered on Alexander the Great’s way to greatness. Unlike most maps, this map enables you to digitally experience the expedition and zoom in close on each location while you read the eBook online. Alexander&rsquos men rallied behind him through some of the greatest battles of the period, yet at the end they were punished for their resistance to fight on by being forced to travel through the Gedrosian Desert, where Alexander lost three-quarters of his men due to the harsh desert conditions. Some examples of the locations in this map include the Temple of the Oracle at the Quasis of Siwa, the Amphitheatre in Alexandria, the ancient cities of Persepolis and Babylon, and where the Battle of the Persian Gate took place. By activating the 3D terrain mode, and using the compass to rotate and see the horizon, you can view the map with mountains that you can zoom in on in order to understand how Alexander viewed it.

Locations in this map were determined from the following sources:

• Benjamin Ide Wheeler&rsquos book Alexander the Great: The merging of East and West in Universal History.
• A Wikipedia Map of Alexander&rsquos conquest of the Indian Subcontinent
• The Wikipedia Page on the Wars of Alexander the Great

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What Were Alexander the Great's Major Contributions?

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Alexander the Great's major contribution to history was the spread of Greek culture throughout the Middle East and Central Asia. His large territorial empire also encouraged trade between cultures that had previously had little contact, encouraging economic growth and the flow of ideas between Greece and North India.

Historian Johann Gustav Droysen called the spread of Greek culture that happened in the wake of Alexander's conquest "Hellenization." Alexander encouraged Hellenization by founding at least 70 new cities throughout his empire and populating them with Greeks. Though the empire that Alexander gained through his military triumph split into various kingdoms after his early death in 323 B.C. at the age of 32, the Greek generals who ruled those kingdoms, who were called the Diadochi, still promoted Greek culture. The spread of Hellenistic ideas bound together the cultures of the vast areas of his empire, giving them a lingua franca, koin? Greek, and a shared set of cultural touchstones that made communication and trade easier.

The Enyclopedia Brittanica also credits Alexander with the eventual rise of the Roman and Byzantine empires and the spread of Christianity throughout the ancient world. These political and religious systems used the Greek-speaking infrastructure of the world that Alexander joined together to project influence over huge distances, a feat that would have been much more difficult without the ground that Alexander's conquests had prepared. His conquests also increased scientific and geographical knowledge of the ancient world.

Map of Alexander the Great's Conquests - History

Campaigns of Alexander the Great

(Enlarge) (PDF for Print) (Freely Distributed)

Map of Alexander's Campaigns

The campaigns of Alexander the Great, whose empire is mentioned as the fourth kingdom in Dan 7:23, were of great importance for Israel. With the exception of Tyre, which was still a flourishing city off shore, which withstood siege for seven months in 332 A.D., the Phoenician ports quickly surrendered.

Once resistance at Gaza was broken, the way was open to Egypt, where Alexandria was founded (331 BC). Many towns along the route of march (indicated by the circle in circle) were named for Alexander (Alexandria, Alexandre and Alexandropolis).

Alexander III "the Great" was born in 356 B.C. and died at the young age of 33, in 323 B.C., but during his life he became one greatest military commanders in all of history. His major battles are marked on the map by the fiery sun symbol. Alexander conquered the vast Persian Empire which had swallowed up the territories of earlier empires: the Egyptian, Assyrian, and Babylonian. He ruled from Greece to India, and suddenly died in Babylon. He had no heir and so His kingdom was divided among four of his generals - Syria went to Seleucus, Egypt to Ptolemy. Greece to Cassander, and Thrace to Lysimachus. These four generals were known as the Diadochoi, which means "Successors" in Greek.

The prophecies of Daniel were written 250 years before Alexander was born, and yet they describe him and his kingdom in great detail. The prophet Daniel called Alexander the Great: the "Leopard", the "Horn" of Greece, and the "Mighty King" who would swiftly conquer the kingdoms of the world. Shortly afterward his kingdom would be broken and scattered like the wind, and four weaker kingdoms would remain.

The Leopard
Daniel 7:6 "After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl the beast had also four heads and dominion was given to it."

The Horn of Greece
Daniel 8:5-7 "And as I was considering, behold, an he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran unto him in the fury of his power. And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand."

The Great Horn
Daniel 8:5-7 "The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.

The Mighty King
Daniel 11:3-4 "And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will. And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those."

Daniel was considered to be the empire predicting prophet of all the Hebrew prophets, who foretold four kingdoms upon the face of the earth that would rise after Babylon:
1. The Kingdom of the Medes and Persians
2. The Kingdom of Greece
3. The Kingdom of Rome
4. The Future Roman Empire

Alexander the Great in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE

9. His Influence:
Alexander is not to be estimated merely as a military conqueror. If he had been only this, he would have left no deeper impress on the world than Tamerlane or Attila. While he conquered Asia, he endeavored also to Hellenize her. He everywhere founded Greek cities that enjoyed at all events a municipal autonomy. With these, Hellenistic thought and the Hellenistic language were spread all over southwestern Asia, so that philosophers from the banks of the Euphrates taught in the schools of Athens. It was through the conquests of Alexander that Greek became the language of literature and commerce from the shores of the Mediterranean to the banks of the Tigris. It is impossible to estimate the effect of this spread of Greek on the promulgation of the gospel. Full Article

Alexander the Great in Smith's Bible Dictionary

Alexander III
(helper of men--brave) king of Macedon, surnamed the Great, the son of Philip and Olympias, was born at Pella B.C. 356, and succeeded his father B.C. 336. Two years afterwards he crossed the Hellespont (B.C. 334) to carry out the plans of his fathers and execute the mission of (Greece to the civilized world. He subjugated Syria and Palestine B.C. 334-332. Egypt next submitted to him B.C. 332, and in this year he founded Alexandria. In the same year he finally defeated Darius at Gaugamela, who in B.C. 330 was murdered. The next two years were occupied by Alexander in the consolidation of his Persian conquests and the reduction of Bactria. In B.C. 327 he crossed the Indus turning westward he reached Susa B.C. 325, and proceeded to Babylon B.C. 324, which he chose as the capital of his empire. In the next year (B.C. 323) he died there of intemperance, at the early age of 32, in the midst of his gigantic plans and those who inherited his conquests left his designs unachieved and unattempted. cf. Da 7:6 8:5, 11:3 Alexander is intended in Da 2:39 and also Dani 7:6 8:5-7 11:3,4
the latter indicating the rapidity of his conquests and his power. He ruled with great dominion, and did according to his will, Da 11:3 "and there was none that could deliver . out of his hand." Da 8:7 Full Article

The Bible Mentions "Greece" Many Times

Zechariah 9:13 - When I have bent Judah for me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece, and made thee as the sword of a mighty man.

Acts 20:2 - And when he had gone over those parts, and had given them much exhortation, he came into Greece,

Acts 21:37 - And as Paul was to be led into the castle, he said unto the chief captain, May I speak unto thee? Who said, Canst thou speak Greek?

Revelation 9:11 - And they had a king over them, [which is] the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue [is] Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath [his] name Apollyon.

John 19:20 - This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, [and] Greek, [and] Latin.

Acts 16:1 - Then came he to Derbe and Lystra: and, behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timotheus, the son of a certain woman, which was a Jewess, and believed but his father [was] a Greek:

Mark 7:26 - The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation and she besought him that he would cast forth the devil out of her daughter.

Luke 23:38 - And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.

Colossians 3:11 - Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond [nor] free: but Christ [is] all, and in all.

Acts 16:3 - Him would Paul have to go forth with him and took and circumcised him because of the Jews which were in those quarters: for they knew all that his father was a Greek.

Romans 1:16 - For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.

Galatians 3:28 - There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.

Romans 10:12 - For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him.

Galatians 2:3 - But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised:

The Bible Mentions Also Mentions "Alexandria"

Acts 28:11 - And after three months we departed in a ship of Alexandria, which had wintered in the isle, whose sign was Castor and Pollux.

Acts 18:24 - And a certain Jew named Apollos, born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, [and] mighty in the scriptures, came to Ephesus.

Introduction to the Conquests of Alexander the Great (334 bce–323 bce)

By the middle of the fourth century bce , the Greek city-states found themselves threatened not by the Persians, who had been their principle rival during the previous century, but fellow Greek-speakers to the north, in Macedon. So far as the citizens of the southern city-states were concerned, Macedonians were barbarians speaking a loutish dialect of Greek. Whether they were barbarians or not, the Athenian statesman Demosthenes warned in a series of speeches called the Phillipics about the danger of the growing power of the Macedonian kingdom. The kingdom at this time was ruled by Philip II, who had spent three years of his youth as a hostage in the Greek city of Thebes, where he gained a Greek education.

After becoming king, Philip II took advantage of the political instability to his south. He expanded first into territories that gave him access to vast natural resources, which he deployed to strengthen his position in terms of military force and alliances. The city-states were embroiled in two major conflicts at the time. The Social War (357–355 bce ) pitted Athens against several of its subject cities and the city of Byzantium and resulted in a weakened Athens. The Third Sacred War (356–346 bce ) was even more damaging. The city of Phocis seized the treasury of the temple of Apollo at Delphi, leading not only to another war among the southern city-states but to an excuse for Philip to invade Greece for the honor of the god. He forced most of the Greek city-states (with the notable exception of Sparta) into the Corinthian League.

Philip died before being able to lead the League into battle against the Persians. This feat was left to his son, Alexander II, known as Alexander the Great, a man with a genius for conquest. The Persian Empire was still a major power, ruling most of the territories of modern Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkey, the Levant, and Egypt. All would soon fall to Alexander. He invaded Asia Minor in 334 bce purportedly to free the Greek colonies there from despotic Persian rule, but in fact went on to dominate the region himself. He drove Darius III, the Persian king, back into Mesopotamia after the Battle of Issus in 333 bce and defeated him definitively at the Battle of Gaugamela two years later. In between he took the Levant and Egypt, and after went on to India. Despite some notable successes, such as the Battle of the Hydaspes, India ultimately stymied Alexander and he was forced to return to the west. After a brief illness, he died in Babylon in 323 bce

At its height, Alexander’s empire stretched from Greece to India, but he founded no dynasty. His successors were his officials, who divided up his conquests and went on to fight a series of four wars called the Wars of the Successors (or the Wars of the Diadochi, 322–301 bce ). Though his empire disintegrated, Alexander’s fame grew with each passing generation. Ancient Romans venerated him. Medieval French poets celebrated him in verse. And his legend appears in more than eighty languages, from Icelandic to Malay.

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