Siege of Kehl, 28 October 1796-10 January 1797

Siege of Kehl, 28 October 1796-10 January 1797

Siege of Kehl, 28 October 1796-10 January 1797

The siege of Kehl (28 October 1796-10 January 1797) saw a sizable French garrison defend a strongly fortified camp on the east bank of the Rhine opposite Strasbourg for three months before the camp was evacuated after prolonged Austrian attacks.

The village of Kehl had changed owners on several occasions. In the 1680s it was taken by France, and Vauban constructed fortifications around the village. In 1738 Kehl was returned to the Empire, but only after the fort had been demolished and the ditches filled.

On 23 June 1796 General Moreau crossed the Rhine from Strasbourg to Kehl at the start of his invasion of southern Germany. He ordered work to begin on rebuilding the fortifications, and on a large fortified camp. Kehl sits between the river Rhine and Kinzig, just to the south of the point where the Kinzig flows into the Rhine. In 1796 there were several islands nearby in the Rhine, the most important of which was Erlenrhin, to the south of Kinzig. Since the 1790s the area has been extensively altered, and Erlenrhin is no longer traceable.

Kehl was surrounded by three lines of fortifications. The first ran up the Rhine and across to the Kinzig and covered the approaches to the bridges over the Rhine. The second ran downstream and covered the swampy area where the two rivers joined. The third, on the extreme right of the position, protected the island of Erlenrhin. The fortified camp was protected by an inner line of defences that ran from Erlinrhin on the right across to Kehl on the left. A strong redoubt called Trous-de-Loup was built in the centre of this line. The post house and cemetery of Kehl were isolated in front of the left part of this line, and so a second line of defences ran from the Trous-de-Loup to the cemetery. On the right the small communication bridge that ran from the mainland to the island of Erlenrhin was protected by a large redoubt, while the island was guarded by an odd shaped redoubt which was known as 'le Bonnet-de-Pretre', or Priest's bonnet.

Moreau's expedition ended with a retreat back to the Rhine, and on 26 October he crossed back into France at Huningue. The Austrians then moved their main army, under the Archduke Charles, down the river to besiege Kehl. Charles allocated 52 battalions of infantry and 46 squadrons of cavalry, all under General Latour, to conduct the siege, while other Austrian forces blockaded Huningue. Although the siege began on 26 October the Austrians didn't begin digging the siege works until 21 November. This pause gave General Desaix, the commander of the French garrison in Kehl, a chance to complete the fortifications and prepare for the siege. Desaix's biggest advantage was that Kehl was connected to the west bank by permanent bridges. There was thus no chance that starvation would end the siege.

When the Austrians did begin to build the siege works they were on an impressive scale. Kehl was surrounded by a circuit of fifteen large redoubts. The Austrian line ran through Sundheim, facing the fortified camp between the Rhine and the Kinzig. It crossed the Kinzig at Neumuhl, ran north from there to Bodersweier and then west towards the Rhine at Auenheim.

On 22 November, the day after the Austrians began to build their siege works, Moreau led a large scale sortie from Kehl. 16,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry in three columns attacked the left of the Austrian line. Two redoubts between the Rhine and the Kinzig were destroyed, and Sundheim was captured, but the French failed to reach their main target – the Austrian artillery park – and were forced to retreat back into their lines when Latour attacked in force. Moreau himself was hit in the head by a musket ball that had lost all of its force, while his aide-de-camp Delelée was badly wounded.

On the night of 23-24 November the Austrian batteries opened fire for the first time. After that the French were under constant fire, and the recently constructed defences soon began to suffer. Latour made a series of attacks on the French lines. The first three were made against the fortified camp and the island of Erlenrhin, the fourth against the French left on the Kinzig. On 5 December Touffue island fell to the Austrians. On 10, 11 and 12 December the Austrians attempted to take the post house, and finally succeeded on 19 December.

The weather then intervened. Heavy rain fell from 20-26 December, flooding the trenches. At one point Latour even considered abandoning the siege, but the trenches soon dried out, and on 1 January 1797 the Austrians captured the redoubt of Trous-de-Loup. On the following day they turned west and attacked Erlenrhin Island. The outlying works and the horn work fell. The island was only saved when General Lecourbe withdrew the flying bridge connecting the island to the rest of the camp, giving his men no option but to counterattack. The Austrians were forced to abandon their attack, but it was now clear that Erlenrhin was now vulnerable to attack, and on 5 January it was evacuated.

The loss of Erlenrhin and most of the defences of the fortified camp convinced Moreau that there was little point attempting to hold Kehl for any longer. He opened negotiations with the Austrians, and on 9 January signed a convention agreeing to evacuate the place. On the next day the last French troops crossed the bridges back to the west bank, and the siege ended.

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Second Battle of Kehl (1796)

The Second Battle of Kehl occurred on 18 September 1796, when General Franz Petrasch's Austrian and Imperial troops stormed the French-held bridgehead over the Rhine river. The village of Kehl, which is now in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, was then part of Baden-Durlach. Across the river, Strasbourg, an Alsatian city, was a French Revolutionary stronghold. This battle was part of the Rhine Campaign of 1796, in the French Revolutionary War of the First Coalition.

In the 1790s, the Rhine was wild, unpredictable, and difficult to cross. Its channels and tributaries created islands of trees and vegetation that were alternately submerged by floods or exposed during the dry seasons. A complex of bridges, gates, fortifications and barrage dams linked Kehl with Strasbourg. These had been constructed by the fortress architect Sébastien le Préstre de Vauban in the seventeenth century. The crossings had been contested before: in 1678 during the French-Dutch war, in 1703 during the War of the Spanish Succession, in 1733 during the War of the Polish Succession, and earlier in Battle of Kehl, when the French crossed into the German states on 23–24 June. Critical to French success would be the army's ability to cross the Rhine at will. The crossings at Hüningen, near the Swiss city of Basel, and at Kehl, offered access to most of southwestern Germany from there, French armies could sweep north, south, or east, depending on their military goal.

In late summer of 1796, the Austrian force reacquired most of the territory lost to the French earlier in the summer. On 18 September 1796, the Austrians temporarily acquired control of the tête-du-ponts (bridgeheads) joining Kehl and Strasbourg until a strong French counter-attack forced them to retreat, leaving the French in control of the bridges but the Austrians in control of the territory surrounding them. The situation remained in status quo until late October. Control of the surrounding territory there prevented the French from crossing to safety in Strasbourg, and required the French commander, Jean Victor Marie Moreau, to withdraw toward Basel. Immediately after the Battle of Schliengen (24 October 1796), while most of Moreau's army retreated south to cross the Rhine at Hüningen, Count Baillet Latour moved his Austrian force to Kehl to begin a 100-day siege.

Maine Genealogy Archives

Jason Pierce and Prudence Price, both of Hallowell, September 15, 1793.

Samuel Fall and Abigail Mills, not of any incorporated town, but within the County of Lincoln, March 5, 1794.

Samuel Cony and Anna Fletcher, both of this town, June 19, 1794.

Asa Blanchard of Pittston and Lydia White of this town, December 4, 1794.

Robert Abbot and Sally Gilman, both of this town, January 25, 1795.

Jabez Clough of Readfield and Rhoda Palmer of this town, Feb. 25, 1795.

Charles Gill and Betsey Barton, both of this town, March 1, 1795.

Barnabas Lambert to Dolly Ballard, May 14, 1795.

Peter Kitteridge to Sarah Church of Hallowell, May 20, 1795.

Cornelius Howard to Dorcas Freeman, August 14, 1795.

Liba Hall to Eunice Fletcher of Hallowell, October 6, 1795.

Caleb Tinkham to Mehitable Houstin, October 18, 1795.

Solemnized by Daniel Cony, Esq :

Jacob Bradbury to Rebecca Quin, both of Hallowell, May 20, 1792.

Moses Pollard to Hannah Ballard, both of Hallowell, October 28, 1792.

Switliff Lawson and Milla Ingraham, both of Hallowell, May 12, 1793.

Amos Partridge and Hannah Rockwood, both of Hallowell, May 28, 1793.

Laban Prince and Beulah Ephraims, of color, both of Hallowell, June 23, 1793.

James Gow and Lucy Gilman, both of Hallowell, August 27, 1793.

Hartson Cony and Patty Norton, both of Farmington, September 26, 1793.

Rowland Smith and Nancy Clark, both of Hallowell, November 24, 1793. (Rowland Smith was a soldier of the revolution he was b. 1761, in Middleborough, Mass.)

John Phinney and Elizabeth Edson, both of Hallowell, November 28, 1793.

Thomas Metcalf and Sally Smith, both of Hallowell, March 20, 1794.

William Sprague and Polly Keaton, both of Hallowell, November 12, 1794.

Eliab Lyon of Winthrop and Rachel Fought of Hallowell, October 17, 1790.

Edmund Fortes and Lydia Ulmer (negroes), both of Hallowell, July 30, 1791.

Seth Jewet Foster and Hannah Thompson, both of Hallowell, Aug. 25, 1791.

Jeremiah Powell and Margaret Fox, both of Hallowell, Nov. 24, 1791.

James Kenny and Nancy Gilman, both of Hallowell, April 8, 1792.

Doctor Samuel Colman of Hallowell and Miss Susanna Atkins of Newburyport, joined in marriage by the Rev. Edward Bass of Newburyport, October 14, 1787.

Solemnized by Henry Dearborn, Esq :

John Molloy to Martha Clark, January 24, 1793.

Solemnized by Nathaniel Dummer, Esq :

John Odlin Page to Sally Kilton, June 8, 1794.

Stephen Hinkley to Lucy Nye, October 5, 1794.

James Toward to Sally Carr, October 3, 1794.

Francis Stilfin to Betsey Fuller, December 9, 1794.

David Philbrook to Hannah Crosby, August 12, 1795.

Isaac Livermore to Eliza Whitwell Kenny, November 12, 1795.

John Stratton to Therasea Gilman, March 15, 1796.

Solemnized by Sam'l Dutton, Esq :

Shubael Pitts and Parthenia Barton, November 18, 1792.

Wm. Matthews and Betsey Groves, both of Hallowell, May 14, 1795.

William Moore to Susanna Clark, May 31, 1795.

James Colbath to Abigail Smith, July 2, 1795.

Joseph Young to Katharine Fitch, August 2, 1795.

Solemnized by Brown Emerson, Esq :

Capt. Benjamin Stickney and Nabby Jackson, July 24, 1788.

James Black and Abigail Pollard, January 20, 1789.

Solemnized by Rev. Isaac Foster:

Nathaniel Shaw and Mary Davenport, November 2, 1786.

Jonathan Gouding and Martha Savage, December 1, 1786.

Ebenezer Hewins and Zilpha Comings, April 19, 1787.

Joel White and Melatiah Cumings, April 19, 1787.

Benjamin Wade and Rachel Pettingill, June 10, 1787.

John Shaw and Rachel Kennaday, October 24, 1787.

Jotham Smith and Mary Kennady, November 19, 1787.

Daniel Branch and Rachel Blake, November 11, 1787.

Thomas Kenny and Hannah White, November 29, 1787.

Philip Norcross and Nancy Hussey, January 31, 1788.

Solemnized by Eliphalet Gillet:

Ansel Nye to Dolly Bachelder, September 10, 1795.

Nicolas Wilson to Hitty Slocum (negroes) September 20, 1795.

Samuel Damren to Sarah Williams, November 12, 1795.

Cornelius Thompson to Phebe Hinkley, February 2, 1796.

Daniel Hartford to Mary Livermore, March 13, 1796.

William Palmer to Anna Bullin, March 17, 1796.

James Burns to Sarah White, April 4, 1796.

Joseph Graves to Rebecca White, June 80, 1796.

John Pickford to Alice Livermore, July 10, 1796.

Shubael Pitts to Sally Cocks, July 28, 1796.

John Cyphers to Hannah Powers, August 14, 1796,

James Partridge to Polly Winslow, October 4, 1796.

Moses Bedell to Betsey Dinsmore, October 16, 1796.

Benjamin Page to Abigail Cutler, November 20, 1796.

Joseph Dummer to Betsey Winslow, November 27, 1796.

Andrew Goodwin to Patty Easty, December 11, 1796.

John Getchel to Mary Williams, December 22, 1796.

Samuel Hinkley to Sarah Bedell, February 2, 1797.

Scip Moody to Lydia Fortes, negroes, February 16, 1797.

Jonathan Church to Charity Daniels, April 2, 1797.

Solemnized by James Howard, Esq., Justice of the Peace in Hallowell, Province of Maine:

Capt. James Patterson and Margaret Howard, m. February 8, 1763.

John Saley and Jane Savage, m. March 23, 1763.

David Hancock and Susanna Fish, m. December 18, 1763.

John Estis and Eleanor Thorn, m. July 7, 1764.

James Bacon and Abigail March, m. September 23, 1764.

Levi Powers and Mary Chase, m. October 2, 1764.

Benjamin Fitch and Nancy McCausland, m. December 8, 1764.

John Gazlin and Eunice Brown, m. July 5, 1765.

Paul Kenny and Elizabeth Tibbets, m. July 8, 1765.

James Saley and the widow Day, m. August 1, 1765.

Zacheus Flitner and Lucy Colburn, m. November 5, 1765.

William Blake and Abigail Girdy, m. December 26, 1765.

Capt. Samuel Howard and Sarah Lithgow, m. March 4, 1766.

David Stanly and Ruth Ranken, m. March 14, 1766.

Nathaniel Bragg and Hannah Moore, m. April 10, 1766.

Daniel Savage and Anne Jonston, m. August 7, 1766.

Thomas Clark and Lois Spencer, m. November 18, 1766.

Oliver Colburn and Margaret Burns, m. January 13, 1767.

James Collar and Elizabeth Stain, m. October 20, 1767.

Paul Higins and Margaret McCausland, m. September 27, 1767.

John Law and May Smith, m. November 27, 1767.

James Barns and Abigail Spencer, m. May 26, 1768.

Nehemiah Getchel and Anne Bragg, m. June 23, 1768.

Levi Moore and Rebecca Finney, m. June 4, 1769.

Hohn [sic] Gilley and Dorcas Brown, m. August 3, 1769.

Philip Fought and Hannah Sharp, m. September 15, 1769.

William Gibson Perry and Abigail Philbrook, m. November 22, 1769.

Patta Warren and Abigail Tibbets, m. December 25, 1769.

Nathaniel Stanley and Abigail Hall, m. March 18, 1770.

Simeon Clark and Sally Cobb, m. September 20, 1770.

Ebeneza Church and Sarah Winslow, m. October 24, 1770.

Francis Dudley and Anne Thorn, m. November 6, 1770.

Samuel Tolman and Martha Badcock, m. May 10, 1771.

Reuben Fairfield and Abigail Tozer, m. May 29, 1771.

Timothy Foster and Abigail Allen, m. August 29, 1771.

Mr. McCarty and Widow Day, m. September 18, 1771.

Samuel Getchel and Ruth Reed, m. October 10, 1771.

David Wall and Hannah Turner, m. November 21, 1771.

George Fitzgerald and Eleanor Chace, m. November 20, 1721.

Collins Moore and Sarah Tozer, m. January 9, 1772.

Seth Greely and Mary Wright, m. May 11, 1772.

Philip Snow and Abigail Townsend, m. June 13, 1772.

Moses Hastings and Hannah March, m. November 26, 1772.

Charles Stewart and Abigail Fairfield, m. November 12, 1772.

Jabez Lewis and Elizabeth Getchel, m. December 8, 1772.

Nathaniel Spencer and Bridget Simpson, m. December 8, 1772.

James Whitson and Mary Bennett, m. December 9, 1772.

John Gray and Sarah Blanchard, m. January 26, 1773.

David Clark and Sarah Taylor, m. February 15, 1773.

Benjamin Dyer and Jemine Blake, May 3, 1773.

Samuel Badcock and Mary Tolman, m. October 13, 1773.

Joseph Savage and Alice Carson, m. November 23, 1773.

Ephraim Wilson and Eunice Spencer, m. February 26, 1772.

Nathaniel Ewing and Hannah Hastings, m. March 9, 1773.

Joseph Stevens and Abigail Blanchard, m. March 10, 1778.

Benjamin Colburn and Hannah McCausland, m. January 27, 1774.

Jesse Mitchel and Eunice Grover, m. February 21, 1774.

Samuel Stevens and Lois Allen, m. March 16, 1774.

Alexander Robinson and Bethiah Brown, m. April 7, 1774.

Samuel Quin and Hannah Brown, m. May 12, 1774.

Jabez Clough and Mary Savage, m. July 14, 1774.

James Lane and Eunice Chase, m. August 3, 1774.

William Sprague and Martha Shaw, m. September 16, 1774.

Gamaliel Gerould and Lydia Connery, m. July 14, 1774.

Seth Greeley and Jean McCausland, m. December 15, 1774.

Samuel Badcock and Tabitha Savage, m. December 16, 1774.

Emerson Smith and Abigail Ayers, m. December 15, 1774.

Micajah Dudley and Susanna Foster, m. December 20, 1774.

Daniel Townsend and Sarah Butterfield, m. December 29, 1774.

John Bragg and Mary Brawn, m. March 23, 1725.

Reuben Brawn and Rebecca Oak, m. March 23, 1775.

Andrew McCausland and Kezia Berry, m. May 25, 1775.

Frederick Fought and Thankful Durant, m. October 31, 1775.

William Whittier of Winthrop and Elizabeth Hankerson of this town, m. January 21, 1775.

Francis Wyman and Zeuriah Fairfield, m. September 16, 1776.

Edmund Allen and Abigail Ellis, m. July 14, 1777.

George Pealer and Abigail Stuart, m. May 9, 1777.

Joseph Farley and Elizabeth Fling, m. November 20, 1777.

Joseph Greely and Thankful Sartel, m. December 11, 1777.

Daniel Bolton and Reliance Hovey, m. November 19, 1778.

Samuel Young and Kezia Chandler, m. September 28, 1778.

David Ware and Sarah Richardson, m. March 16, 1779.

Eliab Shaw and Sarah Savage, m. April 13, 1779.

Morris Wheeler and Mary Foster, m. November 25, 1779.

Daniel Bolton and Reliance Hovey, m. November 19, 1779.

James Gordon and Rebecca Butterfield, m. July 1, 1779.

Thomas Sewall and Priscilla Cony, m. November 25, 1779.

James Cowan and Susanna Hancock, m. February 10, 1780.

James Moore and Phebe Clark, m. March 2, 1780.

George Bolton and Jane Savage, m. May 19, 1780.

John Badcock and Mary Savage, m. November 21, 1780.

Seth Williams and Zilpha Ingraham, m. January 1, 1781.

Gershom Holmes and Luney Fuller, m. January 23, 1781.

Thomas Hinkley and Mary Taylor, m. March 10, 1781.

David Berry and Mary Bradstreet, m. May 1, 1781.

William Hankerson and Martha Thomas, m. May 9, 1781.

Eleazer Tarbox and Phebe Stackpole, m. March 21, 1781.

James McCausland and Mary Berry, m. March 23, 1781.

Robert Townsend and Ruth Sartel, m. November 1, 1781.

Brian Fletcher and Amey Pettingill, m. September 10, 1781.

William Cowan and Jennet Robinson, m. July, 1782.

John Marchant and Susanna Cowl, m. September 4, 1782.

Samuel Church and Rubey Pettingill, m. December 4, 1782.

Solemnized by Obed Hussey, Esq.:

Oliver Allen and Levina Hopkins, m. August 12, 1773.

Solemnized by Rev. Seth Noble:

Benjamin Cross and Sarah Lamson, m. August 14, 1785.

Joseph Williams and Katharine Coole, m. September 1, 1785.

Solemnized by Joseph North, Esq., Justice of the Peace for Lincoln County :

Gershom Flagg Lane of Hallowell and Lydia Thomas of Gardinerstown, m. February 7, 1776.

John Hankerson of Hallowell and Eleanor Craig of Winthrop, m. March 6, 1776.

Moses White and Mary Foster, both of Hallowell, m. June 3, 1777.

Samuel Hill Cole and Betsey Trask, both of Hallowell, m. Sept. 22, 1781.

Elias Taylor and Betsey Knowlton, both of Hallowell. m. June 19, 1782.

Moses Cass and Mary Page, both of Hallowell, m. May 5, 1784.

Savage Bolton and Mary Shaw, both of Hallowell, m. July, 1784.

Jacob Chandler of Winthrop and Rhoda Pollard of Hallowell, m. July 22, 1784.

Stutley Springer and Mary Badcock, m. July 28, 1784.

Woodward Allen and Abigail Blake, both of Hallowell, m. Nov. 24, 1784.

John Sinclair and Abigail Clark, m. May 12, 1785.

Ezra Hodge and Mehitable Pollard, m. May, 1785.

Abiel Pitts and Abiah Wade, m. May 31, 1792.

Benjamin Baster and Dorcas Pollard, m. June 24, 1792.

James Hinkley and Mary Meggs, m. July 20, 1792.

Henry Dearborn and Milla McKnight, m. November 29, 1792.

John Chamberlain and Mary Brown, m. December 10, 1792.

James Cross and Eleanor Dearborn, m. December 18, 1792.

Stephen Philbrick and Betsey Nowlon, m. May 26, 1793.

Anthony Brackett and Deborah Shaw, m. September 16, 1793.

James Hinkley, Jr., and Joanna Norcross, m. November 7, 1793.

Elias Craig and Olive Hamlen, m. November 28, 1793.

Peter Clark and Mary Moor, m. January 5, 1794.

Joseph White and Sally Mumford Gardiner, m. January 30, 1794.

Charles Cocks and Martha Goodwin, m. February 19, 1794.

Ephraim Barges and Joanna Jewell, m. March 20, 1794.

Solemnized between April, 1794 and April, 1795:

James Goud and Nancy Cane, both of Readfield.

Jesse Kimball and Hannah Cocks, both of Hallowell.

Gershom Cocks and Sarah Hussey, both of Hallowell.

James Page and Hannah Woodward, both of Hallowell.

William Stone and Lucy Savage, m. December 1, 1785.

John Jackson and Dorcas Savage, m. July 21, 1786.

Abner Shepard and Mary Hains, m. September 18, 1786.

Elias Craig and Hannah McKechny, m. December 21, 1788.

John Goff, Jr., and Hannah Mellish, m. December 25, 1788.

Capt. Ebenezer Perkins and Eunice Hallowell, m. November 1, 1789.

Thaddeus Snell and Mary Wing, m. November 24, 1789.

James Keating and Sally Chamberlain, both of Hallowell, m. July 29, 1790.

Abiezer Benjamin and Polly Savage, both of Hallowell, m. August 8, 1790.

Asa Mason and Hannah Cowen, both of Hallowell, m. November 25, 1790.

Nathaniel Norcross and Eunice Wiggins, both of Hallowell, m. July 18, 1791.

William Swanton and Lavinia Savage, both of Hallowell, m. Jan. 19, 1792.

Phineas Paine and Mary Cowen, both of Hallowell, m. April 9, 1792.

Solemnized by Rev. William Stinson :

Ephraim Lord of Hallowell and Sally Dennis of Litchfield, m. Oct. 16, 1796.

Solemnized by Rev. Daniel Stone :

Timothy Page and Martha McNier, both of Hallowell, m. Nov. 19, 1795.

Charles Nesbit and Mary Nowland, both of Hallowell, m. Dec. 25, 1795.

John Brooks of Concord and Sukey Coney of Hallowell, m. Jan. 31, 1796.

Wm. Bell and Mary McMasters, both of Hallowell, m. March 17, 1796.

James Sanders and Lydia Foster, both of Hallowell, m. March 25, 1796.

David Wall and Cynthia Ingraham, both of Hallowell, m. April 14, 1796.

Daniel Gordon of Readfield and Relief Savage of Hallowell, m. April 28, 1796.

Liba Pettingill and Sally Rumble, both of Hallowell, m. April 28, 1796.

Solemnized by Chas. Turner, Esq :

William Ward of Norridgewock and Patty Bullin of Hallowell, m. March 13, 1794.

(Name of solemnizer not recorded.)

Jacob Barber of Lewistown and Judith Tibbets of Bowdoin, m. December 30, 1788.

Thomas Moore and Sarah Harris, both of Hallowell, m. April 2, 1789.

Samuel Bullin, Jr., and Sarah Fletcher, both of Hallowell, m. March 31, 1790.

Enoch Craig and Deborah Sterling, both of Sandy river, m. Feb. 15, 1789.

Thomas Fillebrown and Betsey Cheever, both of Hallowell, m. Jan. 31, 1791.

Local weather forecast

Todays Local Weather Conditions & Forecast: 28°C / 82 °F

Morning Temperature 20°C / 68 °F
Evening Temperature 27°C / 81 °F
Night Temperature 22°C / 71 °F
Chance of rainfall 2%
Air Humidity 59%
Air Pressure 1013 hPa
Wind Speed Gentle Breeze with 7 km/h (5 mph) from East
Cloud Conditions Overcast clouds, covering 88% of sky
General Conditions Light rain

Saturday, 19th of June 2021

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23°C (74 °F)
Light rain, gentle breeze, broken clouds.

Sunday, 20th of June 2021

22°C (71 °F)
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Moderate rain, gentle breeze, overcast clouds.

Monday, 21st of June 2021

24°C (74 °F)
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Moderate rain, light breeze, overcast clouds.

Siege of Kehl, 28 October 1796-10 January 1797 - History

John Tailyour was born to Robert and Jean (Carnegie) Tailyour on February 29, 1755, in Marykirk, Scotland. Robert sent young John to Glasgow to work as a clerk in the merchant firm of George McCall. In 1775, McCall helped John find employment in Virginia as a factor in the Glasgow-Virginia tobacco trade, but the chaos resulting from the onset of the Revolution forced John to leave for home. He returned to America two years later to trade between New York and the West Indies, but again returned to Glasgow one year later. In one last attempt to trade in the western Atlantic, Tailyour sailed for America in 1781, but was thwarted by Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown just days before his arrival. However, Tailyour did find work supplying British prisoners of war in Pennsylvania, until American soldiers frustrated the deal. Fed up with the emerging independence of the American colonies, John left for Jamaica in 1782, encouraged by his cousin, Simon Taylor, one of the island's wealthiest inhabitants.

In Jamaica, John Tailyour quickly flourished under the supervision of his notable cousin. Originally acting as an attorney for absentee planters, John built up enough revenue to start his own merchant house, McBean, Ballantine and Taylor in 1784. He had altered the spelling of his last name to "Taylor," hoping to capitalize on his cousin's success. Tailyour's partner Peter Ballantine became one of his closest business associates and lifelong friend. The firm began trading in plantation supplies, dry goods, and various other commodities. However, the demand for slaves in the British West Indies impelled the firm to enter that trade, and they quickly became known for their efficiency in unloading and selling slaves. John's Glaswegian network helped him build a base of merchant contacts that facilitated his success. He soon became a popular advisor to other young Scottish traders, who wanted to try their fortunes in the Caribbean market.

In 1792, Tailyour reorganized his firm with James Fairlie and renamed it Taylor, Ballantine, and Fairlie. Later that year, however, John returned to Scotland for health reasons, and soon adapted to the life of an aristocrat. In 1793, he married George McCall's daughter Mary, with whom he had ten children. He repurchased his family's estate of Kirktonhill, began renting out nearby land in Marykirk, and sold off his interest in his colonial firm in 1797. His bad health continued to burden him until his death in 1815.

The topic of slavery is prevalent in this collection, as Tailyour was involved professionally and personally with slaves. During the last quarter of the eighteenth century, the greatest profits in the slave trade were made, and Tailyour's firm certainly benefited well. The era also witnessed the advent of arguments against the slave trade, and calls for its cessation. Tailyour was unapologetic in his support of the slave trade, and vehemently castigated the emerging abolitionists. All of Tailyour's contacts did likewise, because of their own involvement with the trade.

During the mid-1780s, John took Polly Graham, one of Simon Taylor's slaves, as a common-law wife. Together they had three or four children, during John's sojourn in Jamaica. In 1790, John appealed to Simon for the freedom of Polly and their children. Simon granted the request, and Tailyour sent three of them (James, John, and Catherine) to Britain to be educated, and to remove them from the prejudices of Jamaica. Two of those children, James and John, are recorded in some detail in the collection. James became a serviceman in the East India Company army, and John worked as a clerk in a London merchant house.

After John Tailyour's death, the family continued to live off the proceeds of the Kirktonhill estate, until it was sold in the early-twentieth century. A long string of Tailyour men undertook careers in the military from the mid-nineteenth to the twentieth century. Kenneth R. H. Tailyour became a high-ranking officer in the British military in the twentieth century. A number of photographs, diaries, and war records in this collection come from his family and professional experiences, as well as those of his brother, Ian Stewart, who also served in the military.

The collection has three substantial parts. The most comprehensive and cohesive section is the one concerning John Tailyour, until his death in 1815. The second part contains business papers and accounts related to the Tailyour estate. The third part is the least integrated, and consists of a variety of family papers, photographs, military memorabilia, and other miscellanea.

The Tailyour papers date from 1743 to 2003, with the majority of the collection concentrating in the period from 1780 to 1840. Within these bulk dates, are the two largest portions of the collection: the correspondence and accounts of John Tailyour until his death in 1815, and the account records of the Tailyour estate after 1815.

Seven boxes contain John Tailyour's personal and business correspondence of 3757 letters. The letters focus on Tailyour's mercantile activities in the Atlantic market, especially on the slave trade, its profitability, and the threat posed by abolitionists. Tailyour's correspondence also chronicles personal and family matters, including the education and provision for his mixed-race children from Jamaica. In addition, the collection contains four of Tailyour's letter books of 1116 copies of retained letters that cover the period from 1780 to 1810, with the exception of the years 1786-7 and 1793-1803. In these letters, Tailyour's focus is business, particularly as it relates to the slave trade, but he also includes personal messages to his friends and family.

Tailyour's business papers contain 32 loose account records, as well as five account books documenting the years between 1789-90 and 1798-1816. These primarily concern his Kingston and Scottish estates, including the expense accounts and balance sheets for each, as well as the finances of his merchant activities during the period. Finally, 38 documents of probate records for John Tailyour mainly relate to his landed estate.

The latter portion of collection within these bulk years (1815-1840) also contains correspondence and accounts, although the 228 letters are almost entirely concerned with business accounts. These focus on Tailyour's estate after his death, with John's brother Robert as the main correspondent. Additional materials include 1761 business papers that chronicle the finances of the estate, 11 account books, and 6 hunting books. The business letters and account books detail the estate's expense accounts and receipts, as well as the balances for their annual crops, salmon fishing business, and profits derived from the rents collected on their land. The hunting books contain descriptive accounts of the family's hunts and inventories of their hunting dogs.

The third, and final, part of the collection consists of Tailyour family records (bulk post-1815), including 49 letters from various family members in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries and five letterbooks, kept by Alexander Renny Tailyour and Thomas Renny Tailyour. 4 account books are also present kept by Alexander Renny Tailyour and others. Some of the records concern the First World War, including a group of prisoner-of-war records sent from Germany, and journals kept at home that detail news of the war, and daily domestic activities.

The family history documents include 64 genealogical records and 58 probate records. Many of the genealogical items are brief notes on family history, and sketches of the family tree, including a large family tree that spans several hundred years to the present day. The probate records contain one will from the late-nineteenth century, but are otherwise entirely concerned with John Tailyour's estate in the years immediately after his death.

Of the printed records, Memoirs of my Ancestors (1884), by Hardy McCall is a genealogy of the McCall family, and Tailyour's Marykirk and Kirktonhill's estates are described in two printed booklets, one of which is an advertisement for Kirktonhill's sale in the early-twentieth century. Other printed material includes 14 various newspaper clippings concerning the family over the years, and 12 miscellaneous items.

The illustrations, artwork, and poetry comprise 14 fashion engravings, 12 sailing illustrations, a picture of a hunting cabin, two silhouettes, and a royal sketch, all of which date from the early- to mid-nineteenth century. Kenneth R. H. Tailyour's sketches are represented in two sketch books created in his younger years (1917 and 1920). Loose records of poetry, as well as a book of poems from George Taylor, are in this section.

The 221 photographs are of the Tailyour family from the late-nineteenth to the twentieth century, with the majority falling in the early decades of the twentieth century. Most are portraits of the Tailyour family from the early twentieth century, particularly Kenneth R. H. Tailyour.

The 138 pieces of ephemera are, for the most part, postcards of foxhunts during the nineteenth century. These announce the almost-weekly family foxhunts during the middle years of the nineteenth century. The 19 items of realia, include Robert Taylor's quill pen from 1826.

The audio-visual portion of the collection contains three items: a compact disc with an audio interview of John Dann, Director of the Clements Library, on National Public Radio's "The Todd Mundt Show" a compact disc with photos of the West Indies and a collection of photographs of the Tailyour papers in their uncatalogued state, and of the festivities surrounding the acquisition of the collection.

Finally, miscellaneous material of 18 pieces includes Robert Taylor's commonplace book of short stories, letters, and poems the catalogue of Robert Taylor's books James Tailyour's 1771 style and form book and a communion book.

  • Scots--Jamaica--History--18th century.
  • Scots--Jamaica--History--19th century.
  • Slavery--Jamaica--History.
  • Slave trade--Jamaica--History.
  • Slaves--Emancipation--Jamaica--History.
  • Plantation life--Jamaica--History.
  • Jamaica--Race relations--History.
  • Merchants--Scotland--History.
  • Scotland--Commerce--History.
  • United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783.
  • Haiti--History--Revolution, 1791-1804.
  • Jamaica--History--Maroon War, 1795-1796.
  • Racially mixed people--Jamaica--History.
  • Atlantic salmon fishing--Scotland.
  • Fox hunting--Scotland.
  • Hunting dogs--Scotland.
  • World War, 1914-1918--Prisoners and prisons, German.
  • World War, 1914-1918--United States.
  • Tailyour family.
  • Tailyour, Ada.
  • Tailyour, George H.F.
  • Tailyour, George Robert.
  • Tailyour, Ian Stewart.
  • Tailyour, Joan.
  • Tailyour, Kenneth R.H.
  • Tailyour, Norman Hastings.
  • Tailyour, William Gordon.
  • Fashion prints.
  • Wit and humor, Pictorial.
  • Caricatures and cartoons.
  • Sailing ships.
  • Anderson, Alex.
  • Anderson, John.
  • Ballantine, Peter.
  • Dick, David.
  • Fairlie, James.
  • McCall, George, d. 1810.
  • McCall, John.
  • Renny, Thomas, d. 1799.
  • Tailyour, Ada.
  • Tailyour, Alexander Renny, 1775-1849.
  • Tailyour, George.
  • Tailyour, George H. F.
  • Tailyour, George Robert, b. 1805.
  • Tailyour, Ian Stewart.
  • Tailyour, James.
  • Tailyour, Joan.
  • Tailyour, John, 1755-1815.
  • Tailyour, Kenneth R. H.
  • Tailyour, Mrs. H.
  • Tailyour, Norman Hastings.
  • Tailyour, Robert.
  • Tailyour, Thomas Renny, 1812-1885.
  • Tailyour, William Gordon.
  • Taylor, George.
  • Taylor, James, b. 1786.
  • Taylor, Robert.
  • Taylor, Simon, 1740-1815.
  • Account books.
  • Birth records.
  • Clippings (information artifacts)
  • Commonplace books.
  • Compact discs.
  • Death records.
  • Diaries.
  • Engravings (prints)
  • Genealogies.
  • Journals (accounts)
  • Letter books.
  • Marriage records.
  • Menus.
  • Military commissions.
  • Photographs.
  • Poetry.
  • Postage stamps.
  • Postcards.
  • Ration books.
  • Receipts (financial records)
  • Recipes.
  • Scrapbooks.
  • Silhouettes.
  • Sketchbooks.
  • Vouchers.

John Tailyour received 3,757 letters. Most of them concern his business transactions in Jamaica and Scotland. His primary business partners were John and Alex Anderson, Peter Ballantine, David Dick, James Fairlie, George and John McCall, Thomas Renny, and Robert and Simon Taylor. Many of these contacts, including the Andersons, George McCall, and Robert Taylor, stayed in Britain. The Andersons took a particular interest in the slave trade. As a merchant in the American trade, George McCall often sought Tailyour's advice on the markets there, and discussed his own struggles with business after the war. He also served as one of Tailyour's early advisors, as Tailyour began his mercantile career under McCall's tutelage. However, by the 1790s, McCall was asking for Tailyour's advice, as he sought out business positions in Jamaica through John Tailyour's contacts. Eventually McCall's son John became one of Tailyour's clerks in Jamaica.

The correspondence from John McCall, and from David Dick, Tailyour's other clerk, provides some of the most complete information on Tailyour's business and family in Jamaica, after he returned to Scotland. McCall, in particular, often visited Tailyour's Jamaican wife and children, in order to send him reports. Beginning about 1800, the content of McCall's and Dick's letters centered more around their dissolving business partnership. Both men appealed to Tailyour and his cousin Simon for support and arbitration, but the issue of dissolution was settled without them.

Peter Ballantine and James Fairlie were John Tailyour's business partners in Jamaica, and both are an additional source of information on Tailyour's colonial interests after he returned to Britain. Unfortunately, their correspondence begins the year that Tailyour left for Britain (1792), so they offer little information about the founding of their firm, Taylor, Ballantine and Fairlie. However, both Ballantine and Fairlie kept Tailyour advised on the slave, sugar, and dry goods markets, while Tailyour still owned his interest in the Jamaican firm during the 1790s. They, and others, also wrote about events that occurred in the West Indies during the 1780s and 1790s, particularly as they affected the firm's business. They regularly mentioned their concern over the Revolution in St. Domingue in the 1790s, as well as the uprising of the Maroons in 1795, as both events threatened the social stability of Jamaica and its business climate. Ballantine and Fairlie discussed personal information throughout their correspondence, and, once Tailyour sold his interest in the firm, their remarks about family and personal matters became more frequent.

As evidence of the strong ties between personal networks and business, Tailyour's brother Robert and his cousin Simon intermixed both personal and business information in their letters to Tailyour. Between 1788 and 1807, both were continually concerned about the possibility of the abolition of the slave trade. Simon also relayed his business orders to Tailyour, who still carried out work for his cousin during his stay in Jamaica. Robert, with his contacts in the East Indies, provided information on the markets there. His letters contain some of the most detailed information on the issue of Tailyour's mixed race children, including descriptions of the two boys. It was Robert who found schools for the children, as well as professions. A number of letters from the two boys, James and John, are included in the collection. James's correspondence is almost entirely centered on his entrance into the East-India Company army, as well as his initial struggles on the subcontinent after his arrival. John, who worked as a clerk, wrote about his future prospects outside the counting house, and his inability to live on his budget.

Tailyour's mother, Jean, wrote several letters, expressing her concerns about her son's colonial family, and about his future plans for returning to Britain. Tailyour's extended family wrote some of the letters, including the Carnegies (his mother's family), and the Foulertons -- Tailyour's sister Catherine married a Foulerton. Tailyour's connections through the Carnegies and Foulertons, helped him to win a spot in the East India Company army for his son. In return, he helped connect several Carnegies in Jamaica, and gave financial support and advice to the Foulertons.


The four letterbooks that have survived contain 1,116 retained copies of Tailyour's letters. His early letter books (1781-1785) detail his initial struggles in America, when he first tried his hand at general trade, and later attempted to provide supplies for British prisoners-of-war after the American Revolution. Both attempts failed, and by 1782, he started thinking about moving to Jamaica to work with his cousin Simon Taylor. During this time, Tailyour kept in touch with his British contacts, including George McCall, the Andersons, and his brother Hercules, whom he hoped to recruit for the American trade.

John Tailyour started his career in Kingston, Jamaica, as a trader in dry goods and sundry stores, but soon added the purchase and sale of slaves to his business. Many of his letters after 1783 focus on the condition of the slave trade and the threat from abolitionists in England. Tailyour styled himself as an expert slave trader, able to sell entire ships of slaves quickly. Much of his correspondence about the trade focuses on the kinds of issues that affected its viability, including the health of the slaves, the health of the markets, the age and sex of the slaves, and the locations of sale.

Tailyour wrote many letters about the abolitionist threat as well, and the damage he anticipated from abolition. Contrary to some accounts, Tailyour's reports on the slave trade indicate that it was robust at the end of the eighteenth century. Though he foresaw a potentially large loss of business if the trade were outlawed, Tailyour did not reflect much on the social effects of this, but he did note in 1788 that "from all the best information I ever had, it clearly appears Slaves live better by far in the West Indies than in Africa, & from my own observations I can say they in general live better than the Poor of Scotland, Ireland & probably England."

Toward the end of his life, Tailyour wrote more directly about issues concerning his health, his estate in Scotland, and the business news from his correspondents.

Business papers [subseries]

John Tailyour's business papers comprise 32 letters and his five account books. The business papers relate to his estates in Scotland, particularly Kirktonhill. Several letters between Tailyour and his good friends Thomas Renny and Peter Ballantine contain accounts and vouchers. Tailyour wrote two letters to John Baveridge. Also included are several bonds procured in Scotland and additional contracts. For accounts regarding his estate, consult series II and III.

Tailyour's account books are divided between his pre- and post-1792 finances. Those prior to 1792 focus on his Kingston estate and his accounts regarding trade and personal expenses. Those after 1792 relate to his Scottish estates, particularly Kirktonhill and Craigo. His account journal for Kirktonhill includes personal, estate, and expense accounts, as well as several bills, receipts, and accounting balances.

Correspondence [subseries]

The correspondence for the Tailyour estate after 1815 almost entirely concerns estate accounts, primarily regarding division and management issues immediately after Tailyour’s death in 1815. Mid-nineteenth century accounts also focus on the Tailyour family estate. Finally, a small collection of letters from Simon Taylor to his parents in the 1860s concern his travels abroad.

Business Papers [subseries]

The collection's business papers after 1815 contain 1716 individual items, which divide into six large sections: Tailyour family estate accounts from 1823-36 the expense accounts from 1838-43 accounts of the family's farm from 1824-27 accounts paid between 1833-39 the salmon fishing records from 1836-47 and the vouchers and factory accounts for the family's crop between 1816-1818. Additional items include a number of receipts from Robert Taylor and some accounting letters to Brand and Burnett. Most of these accounts are for the Kirktonhill and Craigo estates, and lands rented out. The salmon fishing accounts are quite extensive, detailing the family's finances in the profitable salmon industry of northeast Scotland.Ten account books concern the post-1815 estate. These provide estate and expense accounts for the Tailyour assets. The Accounts and Legal Forms book from 1820-1821 includes a number of legal opinions and expositions on accounts and cases during this period. The rent book of 1833-36 reports personal and estate finances for the land on the family's Marykirk and Garrock estates, which were located just outside the primary Kirktonhill estate. Robert Taylor's account journal centers on his mercantile accounts in Edinburgh, and also includes a waste book. Finally, Simon Taylor's account book contains his Edinburgh merchant records.

Hunting Papers [subseries]

The hunting papers catalogue the various adventures and important details of the Tailyour family hunting expeditions. The journals include descriptions of the locations of the hunts, detailed stories of the hunts themselves, and ratings of performance after each event. The lists of hunting dogs provide not only the name, but also the pedigree and some description of the dogs used by the Tailyour family for their regular foxhunts.

Correspondence [subseries]

The correspondence of the Tailyour family after 1815 is diverse. Many are letters from friends to unnamed recipients. Others are family telegraphs, which contain brief information, including traveling details, etc. The war letters are written to and from a long line of Tailyour men, who served in the military.

Letterbooks [subseries]

The five letterbooks contain correspondence predominantly written from Great Britain and mostly detail financial and businesss affairs.

Account Books [subseries]

The Tailyour Family Account Books consist of four volumes, primarily concerning the finances of Alexander Renny Tailyour in England and Scotland.

Military [subseries]

The Tailyour family had a long tradition of military service, beginning in the nineteenth century. The collection contains military commissions and promotional records of George Robert, George H. F., and Kenneth R. H. Tailyour a number of World War I prisoner-of-war records from Germany, including the envelopes issued by the German government to the soldiers and World War I ration books. Also included are Mrs. H. Tailyour's journals from 1914 to 1917, with notes on the letters she received, daily news reports (often in several quick sentences), stamps she collected (and their value), war news, and assorted newspaper clippings. Finally, two nineteenth-century military books pertain to naval signals and insignia patterns.

Genealogy and Probate [subseries]

The genealogical records include birth and baptismal records, marriage and death records, and legal documents. A large family pedigree shows a very detailed and complete sketch of the Tailyour family. The genealogical notes and descriptions vary from simple sketches to notes on family history.Most of the probate records concern John Tailyour and his estates. The majority of these focus on the years immediately following his death, although there are some receipts of interest earned on the estate for several decades after his death. The will of Mary Watson, a member of one of the Tailyour family branches, is also included.

Printed Materials [subseries]

The printed sources in the collection are somewhat random in scope. They include a book by Hardy Bertram McCall, Memoirs of My Ancestors, about the McCall family. It is largely a biographical and genealogical sketch of the family in the nineteenth century. Two items concern the Tailyour estates: one is a description of the estates, and the other is an early-20th-century notice for the sale of Kirktonhill that includes photographs and descriptions of the estate. A number of newspaper clippings relate to the family.

Illustrations, Artwork, and Poetry [subseries]

Several hand-drawn illustrations from the nineteenth century include two sketches of sailing vessels one is a royal insignia, and another is a hunting cabin in Scotland. Fourteen engravings of fashion portraits (primarily French fashion styles) are hand colored. Two silhouettes are dated 1830. The poetry consists of loose pages of poetry and George Taylor's book of poems. One book contains a detailed, hand-colored blueprint for a tower. Two sketch-books were created by Kenneth R. H. Tailyour in his younger years. The drawings include still-life and natural scenes, as well as hand-drawn comics and humorous sketches.

Photographs [subseries]

The photographs in this collection center mainly on the Tailyour family. Though a number of still-life pictures of street-scenes and animals are represented, most photographs are portraits of individuals. A number have been marked with identifications, but most remain unmarked, and in some cases the identity cannot be determined. Kenneth R. H. Tailyour and his immediate family are the subjects of most of the photographs. Kenneth Tailyour was the father of William Tailyour, who donated this collection to the Clements Library. The family photos are of Kenneth Tailyour's siblings, Joan, Ian Stewart, William Gordon, and Norman Hastings his parents, George Robert and Ada Tailyour and his grandfather, George H. F. Tailyour.

Ephemera [subseries]

The ephemera include postage stamps, menus, recipes, and especially postcards. Some postcards depict royal events and daily life. Most of the postcards, however, relate to the family foxhunts in the mid-nineteenth century. Each postcard is an announcement of a foxhunt.

Realia [subseries]

The realia in the Tailyour Papers include Robert Taylor's quill pen, a mini dictionary, and a mathematical and counting table.

Audiovisual Materials [subseries]

The audio-visual material includes two items. One is a compact disc recording of an interview of Clements Library Director, John Dann, by Todd Mundt for "The Todd Mundt Show" on National Public Radio. In the interview, Dann describes the acquisition of the Tailyour Papers. The other is a collection of photographs showing the Tailyour Papers as they were when they arrived at the Clements Library, and some photographs of the papers in the process of being sorted. Included within this set are a number of photographs of the reception held for the acquisition of the collection, which features John Dann, William Tailyour, the donor of the collection, Clements library curators and staff, as well as University of Michigan faculty.

Miscellaneous [subseries]

Miscellanea include a catalogue of books from the early nineteenth century Robert Taylor's commonplace book an address book (probably early twentieth century) and James Tailyour's Style and Form Book (1771), including stories, poems, and writing samples and Ada Tailyour's communion book, which contains written notations.

Biographical Sketches of Noted Individuals in the Collection:

Anderson, Alex

John and Alex Anderson were both prominent merchants in London during the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. They were John Tailyour's regular business contacts during his early years in the American colonies, and when Tailyour was in Jamaica he acted as a factor for them. The Andersons had strong ties to the Oswald family, who were also quite important in the British mercantile trade. They were particularly concerned with the slave trade during this period, owing to their involvement in that market.

Anderson, John

Alex Anderson's brother, and business partner.

Arcedekne, Chaloner

Chaloner Arcedekne was a prominent Jamaican landholder in the late-eighteenth century. Much of his time was spent away from Jamaica he hired Simon Taylor to act as an attorney and overseer of his plantations in his absence. As an attorney to Arcedekne (and other absentee landlords), Simon advanced his fortune, allowing him to purchase his own plantations. Simon later became one of the richest men on the island. John Tailyour used his connection with his cousin Simon to extend his business network to Arcedekne. For more information on Simon Taylor and Arcedekne's relationship, see Travel, Trade and Power in the Atlantic, 1765-1884, ed. Betty Wood, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Ballantine, Peter

Peter Ballantine was one of John Tailyour's closest business partners and friends. Soon after arriving in Kingston, Jamaica, Tailyour entered into a business partnership with Ballantine, creating the firm of McBean, Ballantine, and Taylor in 1784. The firm traded in general plantation goods, although soon after forming, they began also buying and selling slaves. In 1792, they reorganized and added James Fairlie, changing their name to Taylor, Ballantine, and Fairlie. Much of the impetus for forming this partnership came from Tailyour's wish to leave all of his colonial business affairs in several hands, rather than continuing to trade solely in his name when he re-settled in Britain. Although Tailyour sold his interest in the firm in 1796, he maintained his correspondence with Ballantine. Tailyour even named one of his sons after Ballantine.

Bowman, John

John Bowman was an educator in Yorkshire, England, in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. When John Tailyour asked his brother Robert to find a suitable school for his son James in 1792, Robert found John Bowman at the boarding school of Byers Green Hall, in northern England. Tailyour sent James and two of his other sons, John and Simon, to Byers Green Hall.

Brand, John

Brand's most notable relationship to John Tailyour came with his role as Tailyour's agent in the Napier lawsuit. Napier leased part of Tailyour's lands in Scotland, and when Tailyour claimed that he had not paid his rent, he sent Napier to prison, resulting in a lawsuit in 1800. Brand later lobbied, with Tailyour, for the construction of a bridge over the North Esk river.

Burnett, John

John Burnett (1764?--1810) was born in Aberdeen, and served as an advocate, advocate-depute, sheriff, judge and judge-admiral in Scotland during his career. He served as officer overseeing John Tailyour's lawsuit with Napier over unpaid rents. After the lawsuit, which Tailyour lost, Burnett solicited Tailyour for the Office of Clerk and Collector in 1803. The Burnett family had long-standing, strong connections to the Tailyour family.

See also, T. F. Henderson, "Burnett, John (1764?--1810)," rev. Eric Metcalfe, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: OUP, 2004)

Burnett, Col. William

Father of John Burnett, Col. William was a procurator-at-law in Aberdeen, Scotland. He had known John Tailyour and his family a long time he shared John's interest in hunting dogs.

Carnegie, Sir David

Sir David Carnegie was a son of Sir John Carnegie, who was a brother of Jean Carnegie Tailyour. Davis was John Tailyour's cousin. He was instrumental in obtaining a position for John's son James in the East India Company, through his friend Lord Sidmouth, who was registered as the official recommendation in James' cadet papers.

Dick, David

David Dick was one of John Tailyour's clerks in Jamaica during his residency there. After Tailyour left, Dick and John McCall helped to oversee Tailyour's accounts in the firm of Taylor, Ballantine, and Fairlie. Soon after, Dick and McCall entered into their own partnership, which combined with Tailyour's old firm for a one-eight share of all non-slave business. By 1800, Dick and McCall had begun feuding. McCall accused Dick of not consulting him in the formation of the firm Dick, Orr, and Clark, and of mishandling three thousand pounds of their partnership's capital. The two asked Simon Taylor to arbitrate the case, but Simon was not interested in the affair. Ultimately, John Tailyour sided with McCall, which produced a rift in his relationship with Dick. After Tailyour left Jamaica, Dick helped to oversee and settle the affairs of Polly Graham, Tailyour's Jamaican lover and mother of his colonial children.

Fairlie, James

Along with Peter Ballantine, James Fairlie was one of John Tailyour's central business partners. Tailyour met Fairlie in Jamaica sometime around 1787, and began working with him in a limited capacity. On January 1, 1792, Fairlie entered into a business partnership with Tailyour and Ballantine, forming the firm Taylor, Ballantine, and Fairlie. This was a reorganized partnership of the earlier firm McBean, Ballantine, and Taylor. In 1796, Tailyour sold his interest in the partnership, but stayed in close contact with Fairlie for the rest of his life. Fairlie often updated Tailyour on the status and well-being of his colonial family after Tailyour left Jamaica in 1792.

Foulerton, Catherine

John Tailyour's younger sister Catherine married John Foulerton, with whom she had several children. Catherine became quite impressed with James Taylor, John's Jamaican son, when he visited in the early 1790s. She helped to win him an interview with the East India Company, through her connection with Lady Campbell, wife of General Campbell in India.

Foulerton, John

John Foulerton married Catherine Tailyour, John Tailyour's younger sister. Later in life he appealed to his brother-in-law, John, to help save him from financial difficulty.

Hill, Dr. George

George Hill (1750--1819), son of Reverend John Hill, was born in St. Andrews, Scotland. He was trained in divinity, and was introduced to a number of notable figures while studying in Edinburgh, including David Hume and Henry Dundas. In 1772, he became a professor of Greek at St. Andrews, and professor of divinity at St. Mary's College sixteen years later. Not long after, he became that college's head. Hill became a notable scholar, particularly in the realm of theological education. He helped to oversee the education of Simon, John Tailyour's son, who studied at St. Mary's. He also educated Simon Taylor's nephew, Simon Richard Brissett.

For more information, see Donald P. McCallum, "Hill, George (1750--1819)," in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: OUP, 2004))

Low, John

John Low often acted as John Tailyour's legal counsel after his return to Scotland. He was an agent for the sale of the Garrock estate for Tailyour. He was also Tailyour's attorney for his lawsuit against David Gray, as well as for the suit against Alexander Jolly.

McCall, Archibald

John Tailyour's brother-in-law, Archibald McCall, was the son of George McCall. After his sister Mary wed Tailyour, Archibald began trading with the Taylor family. In 1803, he traveled to Kingston, and conducted a fair amount of business with Simon Taylor. This relationship appears to have dissolved around 1809, after which point he moved to London to distance himself from his Jamaican concerns. One year later he returned to Glasgow.

McCall, George

Father of James, John, Samuel, and Mary McCall (John Tailyour's wife), George McCall was a prosperous merchant in the Glasgow-Virginia tobacco trade. He hired Tailyour early in his life to act as a factor in Virginia, but the events of the American Revolution soon forced Tailyour's return to Glasgow. Tailyour maintained a strong business relationship with McCall after he departed for Jamaica, and upon returning to Scotland in 1792, he met and married George's daughter Mary. A dispute over Virginia tobacco debts after the American Revolution hurt McCall's finances dramatically, and he sought out alternative markets elsewhere, including Bengal, where he traveled in 1800. Soon afterward he attempted to settle his tobacco finances with Tailyour, after the Americans and British came to terms on tobacco debts. George McCall died in 1810.

McCall, James

Son of George McCall and brother to Mary McCall, James McCall maintained a regular correspondence with Tailyour throughout his life. He did quite well, early on, in his business affairs. He traveled to Limerick, Charleston, and eventually back to Glasgow during his career.

McCall, John

Son of George McCall, John held a more direct business relationship to John Tailyour than his sibling James. McCall traveled to Jamaica, prior to his sister's marriage to Tailyour, in order to get into business there. He worked under the patronage of John Tailyour and George McCall's connections in the Americas. Tailyour hired the younger McCall as a clerk in his firm. Soon afterward, Tailyour returned to Scotland, leaving McCall in charge of his finances, along with his other clerk, David Dick. The two formed a partnership, which then united in a one-eighth share of non-slave commerce with Tailyour's firm Taylor, Ballantine, and Fairlie. McCall later blamed Dick for misplacing three thousand pounds of the firm's money, and for creating a new firm, Dick, Orr and Clark, without informing him. The two asked Simon Taylor to arbitrate the dispute. He initially refused, but later sided with McCall.

John McCall's letters provide some of the most thorough accounts of John Tailyour's Caribbean family. Along with David Dick, he oversaw their well-being and often conveyed their needs to Tailyour.

McCall, Samuel, jun.

Brother of John, James, and Mary McCall, and son to George McCall. Samuel, like his brother James, traveled throughout the Empire for his business affairs. He later moved to London to manage the affairs of his late brother, John's, estate.

Miles, William

One of John Tailyour's business contacts, William Miles traded in Bristol, hoping to open up greater markets in London and the West Indies. Much of his correspondence with Tailyour concerned Miles' need for better contacts in London, with whom he might be able to secure patronage for his son Philip.

Oswald, George

George Oswald (1735-1819) was born near Glasgow, and was the nephew and heir of the merchant Richard Oswald. He established a tobacco-trading firm named Oswald, Dennistoun & Co. In 1764, he married Margaret Smythe they had four sons and at least five daughters. He inherited a substantial estate from his relatives, rose to prominence, and eventually won the election as the rector of Glasgow University in 1797. John Tailyour knew Oswald through his connection with the Andersons and the McCalls, and the two kept up a regular correspondence on matters both financial and personal.

For more information, see David Hancock, "Oswald, Richard (1705?--1784)," in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison (Oxford: OUP, 2004).

Renny, James

John Tailyour described James Renny as one of his closest friends. The two were related through Tailyour's uncle Hercules Tailyour. Both were from Montrose, Scotland, and both moved to Jamaica in the 1780s. Renny also traded in slaves, and purchased some for himself. After Tailyour left Jamaica, Renny often visited Tailyour's colonial family. Renny's death in 1799 came as a severe blow to Tailyour.

Renny, Thomas

Brother of Patrick Renny, Thomas also had strong connections to John Tailyour and the rest of his family, but he remained in Edinburgh, unlike his brother. He also maintained close ties to the Foulertons.

Tailyour, Alexander Renny

Alexander Renny Tailyour was the first-born son of Robert Renny and Elizabeth Jean Tailyour. He was born January 31, 1775. He added the surname Tailyour upon the death of his mother in 1806. He married Elizabeth Ramsay in April 1808. He lived in Borrowfield, and he died in 1849.

Tailyour, Hercules

Hercules Tailyour was the third child of Robert Tailzour and his wife Jean, who was John Tailyour's brother. When John first went to America, Hercules hoped to establish strong commercial connections through his brother that never came to fruition. Although he dabbled in the wine and wood trade, Hercules seemed to have failed to achieve the same level of success as his brothers Robert and John. Frequent illness also thwarted his plans.

Tailyour, Jean

Jean Tailyour was the daughter of Sir John Carnegie, Bt of Pittarrow. She married Robert Tailzour, and the two lived on his estate of Kirktonhill, just outside of Montrose, in the northeast of Scotland. They had five children: Robert, John, Hercules, Mary, and Catherine. She died in September 1807.

Tailyour, John

John Tailyour was a model of the entrepreneurial and peripatetic British merchant of the eighteenth century. Throughout his life, Tailyour traveled in search of opportunity. His voyages took him from his native Scotland to North America, later to the Caribbean, and finally back to Scotland again. He was enterprising in his business, but heavily dependent on his connections for success. He rejoiced at the fortune he made in the colonies, but, like many at the time, wanted to return to the British Isles. Through his travel, trade, and social ties, John Tailyour crafted himself as a major player in the Atlantic merchant community -- in the commercial networks that helped keep the British Empire running.

John Tailyour was born to Robert and Jean (nee Carnegie) Tailyour on February 29, 1755. His parents baptized John on March 20 of that year in Marykirk, Scotland -- the neighboring town to Robert's estate of Kirktonhill, Montrose. The Tailyour family had risen in importance in Scotland with the ascension of James VI to the English throne the century before. As their name implies, the family tailored clothes. They gained prominence through their connections to the royal household, whom they had the honor to dress. By the eighteenth century, the family interests had shifted to the mercantile profession. In the early 1730s, Robert's uncle, John Tailzour, sent his son Patrick from their home in Borrowfield, Forfarshire, Scotland, to Jamaica to trade. Patrick quickly amassed a sizeable income and marred Martha Taylor, daughter of Jamaican George Taylor, whose surname he assumed (changing the name from Tailyour to Taylor). In 1740, Martha and Patrick had a son they named Simon, who would later become the richest man in Jamaica. Five years later, they had a second son John, who would later spend a significant portion of Simon's fortune on the purchase of a baronetcy in England, and all of the necessaries that came with this entrance into the gentry.

When he was young, John Tailyour worked his way into the merchant community of Scotland. He began as an apprentice at a Glasgow merchant house, under the direction of George McCall. By the 1770s, the Glasgow merchants had established a relationship with Virginia tobacco growers, and McCall's house set up a branch in the Chesapeake. John traveled to the partner house in Virginia in 1775, during a period of robust agricultural output, but the events of the American Revolution soon forced him back home. He revisited North America in 1777 to help facilitate trade between the West Indies and New York, but again returned to Glasgow one year later. Throughout these trying years, John hoped that trade between Britain and America would normalize, and, for the third time, he entered America on October 19, 1781, this time to trade in the New York sugar market. Such hopes were crushed as news of Cornwallis' surrender arrived in New York just days after John's debarkation. A desperate John sought Simon's help, but the markets were not strong enough for his cousin's consignments. In a last attempt to trade in North America, John agreed to broker a trade of food and clothes to Cornwallis' surrendered army, but the Pennsylvanian government confiscated his goods before the deal could be completed. Frustrated and uncertain, John took Simon's advice, and decided to try his luck in Jamaica. In December of 1782, he bought a brig, on which he sailed to Jamaica the following spring, arriving in Kingston on March 19, 1783.

In his first few months on the island, John Tailyour depended heavily on Simon for patronage and work. He served as an attorney for several plantations in Jamaica, a lucrative job that helped Simon amass his vast fortune. Throughout his tenure on the island, John regularly sought advice and aid from Simon, who hoped to form a strong business relationship with his cousin. John quickly established himself in the Jamaican merchant community, altered the spelling of his surname to "Taylor," and formed the merchant house of McBean, Ballantine, and Taylor (which would later become the house of Taylor, Ballantine, and Fairlie) on the first day of 1784. Although the firm originally traded in plantation supplies, the partners soon began trading in slaves. As the Jamaican sugar economy grew stronger during the eighteenth century, and as the threat of the abolition of the slave trade increased in the 1780s, slave imports spiked dramatically, which helped John to build his own moderate fortune. His contacts back in Scotland, including his former employer George McCall, formed the foundation of his trade network in Jamaica, and allowed John to tap into markets throughout the British Empire.

While in Jamaica, John began a family. He took up residence with one of Simon's slaves, Polly Graham, a mixed-race woman who cared for John during his periodic illnesses in the harsh Caribbean climate. This was not uncommon among many white planters and merchants, who far outnumbered white women on the island. Although writers in both Britain and the colonies decried the practice, the demographic realities of the islands produced few alternatives. In 1786 Polly gave birth to their first son James. In the next several years, the couple would have three other children together, John, Simon and Catherine. John made no attempt to hide this mixed-race family from his friends in Jamaica, nor from his family back in Scotland, but he did not generally broadcast his liaison beyond those circles. Most information on his Jamaican family comes from the writings of John's friends and family, not John himself.

Although John Tailyour does not discuss his Jamaican family in the letters of this collection, the papers of Simon Taylor at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies in London contain several letters from John to Simon indicating his affection and devotion to his colonial family. Indeed, in 1790, John implored Simon to free Polly and their children: "Having now for several years experienced her care & attention both while I have been in sickness & health," he wrote, "I confess myself much attached to her. . . . I feel my self more anxious to obtain this Favour than I can describe." (John Tailyour to Simon Tailyour, 3 January 1790, Simon Taylor Papers, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London). Simon readily complied and freed John's family.

Having amassed his colonial fortune, and having obtained his family's freedom, John Tailyour began considering a move to the imperial metropolis. The tropical climate never suited John, who often complained of ill health during his residency there. He also worried about his children's opportunities as mixed-race individuals in Jamaica. When the lure of Britain called John back in 1792, he returned in the hope of transforming his colonial fortune into a British landed interest. Like many of his peers, John returned to Britain in order to legitimize his status as a merchant gentleman, both in terms of reestablishing his fortune in Britain, and of starting a lawful British family, sanctioned by the Church and untouched by African blood. He left John McCall and David Dick, his former clerks, in charge of his business affairs in Jamaica, and also entrusted them with the supervision of his colonial family. At the same time, Tailyour prepared the way for his children James, John, and Catherine (there is no record of Simon after 1793), to settle with him in Britain. He left Polly in Jamaica, however, so that he could look for a British wife. John met Mary McCall, daughter of his former employer George McCall, and married her in 1793. For several years, the couple lived in Teddington, until 1797, when John purchased his family's former estate at Kirktonhill, which had been sold in 1778.

Mary and John had ten children during their marriage: Robert (born June 6, 1794), Simon (May 30, 1796), Mary (July 21, 1799), Jean (November 20, 1801), Mary Ann (March 17, 1802), George Robert (December 3, 1805), Peter, who was also known as Patrick (March 2, 1807), Christine (September 1, 1810), Catherine (January 9, 1810), and Hercules (date unknown). John used his personal contacts to open doors of opportunity for his Jamaican children. His brother Robert was the greatest aid in this endeavor. He oversaw their education in England, helped to secure a position in the East India Company army for James, the eldest, and obtained a clerical appointment for John in London.

Despite his move to the gentler English climate, John continued to suffer ill health. In 1797, just four years after returning from Jamaica, John grew tired of his colonial business and sold his interest in the partnership of Taylor, Ballantine, and Fairlie, though he maintained his contacts with his imperial network. He now began relying on the rents from his Scottish estate, rather than his more adventurous business dealings. His health continued to decline, however, and in 1812 he suffered a debilitating stroke. Three years later, he died.

For more information on the early-modern history of the Tailyour family, see Timothy White's Long Ago and Far Away: James Taylor, His Life and Music (London: Omnibus, 2001).

See Alan Karras, Sojourners in the Sun: Scottish Migrants in Jamaica and the Chesapeake (Ithaca: Cornell U Press, 1992).

Taylor, James

The first son of John Tailyour and Polly Graham, James Taylor was born on August 28, 1786, in Kingston, Jamaica, and baptized in that parish. He was born a slave, but his father lobbied for, and gained, his emancipation from his owner, his cousin Simon Taylor. Although his uncle, Robert Taylor, remarked on his light skin, James' mixed-race heritage precluded him from certain opportunities in Jamaica, and John Tailyour sent him to England to be educated. Robert found a school for him in Yorkshire, under the care of John Bowman, and by May 1792, James was in England for his education. There he studied the classics, mathematics, and bookkeeping.

After James had finished his education, his father wished to secure a position for him in the military. James seems to have had a good relationship with the Tailyour family in Britain, who assisted in his professional development. Through his connections to General Campbell in India and people he met during his years as a sailor in the India trade, Robert Taylor won an interview for James with the East India Company in London. In the Company's affidavit on his parentage, James had to lie about his maternal lineage. Despite his intense fear that he would be identified as a descendant of an African slave, the interview was a success. The committee passed James on April 3, 1805, and six days later, he set sail for Madras as a cadet on the Devonshire .

Soon after arriving in India, James grew homesick and pleaded with his father and uncle to arrange a return home. In particular, he lamented the foreignness of the Indians and the ruggedness of the soldier's life. Both John and Robert chastised James for his complaints, and he soon settled down. He later obtained the rank of Brigade Major while on an expedition to the Isle de France.

(See records L/MIL/9/258/96-97 and L/MIL/9/114/211 in the British Library's India Record Office).

Taylor, John

The second child of John Tailyour and Polly Graham, John Taylor's date of birth is unknown, although it occurred sometime between 1787 and 1790, and most likely in Kingston, Jamaica. He was born a slave, but he was manumitted in 1790 with his mother and siblings. Like his brother James, John studied under John Bowman at a school in Yorkshire. His uncle, Robert Taylor, found a clerical position for John in London, sometime before 1809. John seemed to have languished in his occupation. He hoped either to become a merchant, or to transfer into the army, like his brother James. Both John Tailyour and Robert complained about the younger John's impatience and lack of skills as a clerk, but he seems to have won their approval by 1811. Nothing else is known of John after this date.

Taylor, Robert

John Tailyour's brother Robert had a successful career in the India trade as a youth, before expanding his mercantile interests in the 1790s. He eventually settled in London and, in 1789, married Margaret Ann Sleigh of Imber Court, with whom he had three children: Robert, Jean, and Simon. In 1797 he and Alexander Renny founded a merchant house, which traded in a number of goods. By 1799, the firm added Thomas Hughan as a partner, and began trading in slaves as well. Robert used his brother's old firm in Kingston, now run by David Dick and John McCall, to ship slaves to Jamaica in large numbers. Simon Taylor established a strong business relationship with Robert, using him as his principal agent. Simon also stayed with Robert when he visited London. Many of Simon's suggestions for John Tailyour, in fact, were transmitted through Robert's correspondence. By the end of the first decade of the nineteenth century, Robert's business partners had either pulled out or died, and the firm was over-committed. This destroyed his relationship with Simon, who removed Robert from his will in 1812.

Robert proved extremely helpful to John Tailyour in his search for schools and occupations for his mixed-race children. His connections in the India trade, as well as those to the East India Company, helped win John's son James a cadetship in the company. He guided the younger son John into a clerical position. (See the biography of Robert Taylor in the Simon Taylor Papers, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London )

Taylor, Simon

One of the most successful businessmen in late eighteenth-century Jamaica, Simon Taylor was also one of the most successful colonists in the whole of the British Empire. Born to Patrick and Margaret Taylor in Jamaica in 1740, he attended Eton before returning to Jamaica to commence his career. He built his early fortune as one of the leading plantation attorneys for the island, overseeing a number of estates for absentee landlords, most notably for Chaloner Arcedeckne. Eventually, he began buying sugar plantations of his own, and possessed as many as six different estates at one time. Early in his life, he obtained a seat in the Jamaican Assembly for Kingston, serving in that seat from 1763-81. After his move to St. Thomas Parish in the East, he served as their representative from 1784-1810. He also served, at various times, as Custos (a Justice of the Peace), Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and Lieutenant Governor of Militia for the island.

Simon maintained strong connections to his family, including his second cousins John Tailyour and Robert Taylor. Indeed, Simon convinced John to try his luck in Jamaica, and formed a business alliance with Robert toward the end of his life. Simon's brother John benefited from Simon's wealth by spending much of his brother's money on idle living and the purchase of a baronetcy. Simon never married, but had a number of illegitimate children with his slaves -- a subject confirmed by his own letters housed at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies in London, and in Lady Nugent's diary of her time in Jamaica. Without a legitimate heir, Simon's fortune passed on to his nephew Simon Richard Brissett, son of Simon's brother John, who died in 1786. The elder Simon held a strong affection for Simon R. B., but he worried, with good reason, that the fortune would be misspent. Simon died in Port Royal, Jamaica, in 1813, with an estate estimated of one million pounds sterling. Just two years later, Simon R. B. died, and the fortune that passed on to his sister Anna Susannah was eventually wasted away by her son, George Watson Taylor.

Simon had tremendous influence not only in Jamaica, but in England as well. Although he rarely traveled to Britain during his lifetime, he made a trip to England to appeal to Parliament on behalf of the West Indies regarding the abolition of the slave trade. His connections to various parliamentarians and to Admiral Horatio Nelson gave him added legitimacy. Simon had a strong aversion to abolition, though he soon tired of the debate and became resolved to it.

See R. B. Sheridan, "Simon Taylor, Sugar Tycoon of Jamaica, 1740-1813" in Agricultural History v. 45, n. 4 (October 1971): 285-96.

Maria Nugent, Lady Nugent's Journal, Jamaica One Hundred Years Ago, ed. Frank Cundall from 1839 Journal (London: Institute of Jamaica), 1934.

The Simon Taylor Papers, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London.

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In March, Masséna's army occupied Switzerland, preparing an attack against Tyrol through Vorarlberg. However, the defeats of French armies in Germany and Italy forced him to return to the defensive. Taking over Jourdan's army, he pulled it back into Switzerland to Zürich. Archduke Charles pursued him and drove him back at the First Battle of Zurich. When Charles left Switzerland for the Netherlands, the allies were left with a smaller army under Korsakov, who was ordered to unite with Suvorov's army from Italy. Masséna attacked Korsakov, crushing him at the Second Battle of Zurich, and forcing Suvorov to retreat with considerable loss. Russia abandoned the Second Coalition soon after this debacle.


In January 1684, the French Marshal François de Créquy succeeded in cutting Luxembourg off from the main Spanish army. [1] An army of 20,000 was posted between Brussels and Luxembourg, in order to distract the enemy troops from the actual objective. [1] Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban was in command of the siege of Luxembourg. [1]

The French troops numbered 25,000 men, and had more than 70 guns. [1] Their forces included a group of 40 military engineers. [1] The Spanish troops in the city were commanded by the Prince de Chimay and the Comte de Tille. [1] They included about 4,090 men and 600 horses. They were complemented by 600 residents, who had volunteered. The city and fortress lacked provisions and ammunition.

The siege started when defensive positions were built around the city from 28 April and 8 May, in order to protect the besieging army. [1] About 12,000 workers were used, including conscripted farmers. [1] Workers were also brought in from the areas of Metz, Toul and Verdun.

The defenders attempted to hinder the work as much as possible. On 1 May there was a major sortie: the workers in the area of the attack were driven off and the defences destroyed, before a counter-attack forced the Spanish to return to the fortress.

As the main point of attack, Vauban chose the Front of the plain (New Gate front). Furthermore, an additional point of attack and several feint attacks were planned. From early May, the actual siege trenches were dug. With the help of sap trenches, Vauban approached the fortress in two locations. The closest Front was still half a gunshot away from the covered passages of the city. Both points of attack were linked through a connecting trench. The French set up four batteries for the siege artillery, which were aimed at the main point of attack. Along with normal guns, mortars were used. In the night of 8 May, the cannons started firing on the city. The defenders reacted on 9 May with several sorties and destroyed several offensive buildings, but could not stop the construction work. On 11 May the besiegers were within 30 steps of the closest covered passage of the fortress. Three parallels connected the trenches. Additional gun batteries were brought in. At other locations, the trenches were also nearing the city.

From the 14 May, both sides started a mine war, while above ground the attackers were exposed more and more to the fire of the defenders. The latter dug tunnels to undermine the offensive positions and allowed these to collapse. The besiegers especially came under fire from the redoubts, which therefore became the main target of the guns. On 18 May the French gained entry to one of the partly underground passages of Redoubt Mary, and embittered close combat ensued. The next day, the French expelled the defenders from the redoubt. The Spanish had prepared to blow up the position before leaving, but this failed.

After Redoubt Berlaimont came under heave fire for three days, this too was evacuated by the Spanish in the night of 21 May. The attackers now had the entire covered passage under their control, and could now move their guns close to the city. From 24 May, the fortifications in the main area of attack came under massive gun and mortar fire. On 25 May the Spanish were driven out of the interior covered passage after heavy fighting. A mine detonated by them killed many attackers.

French sappers started to undermine the walls and to damage them through underground explosions. Thus, on 27 May the Counter-Guard Barlaimont was damaged and then stormed by French troops. They were repulsed later, but managed to blow up the position. On 29 and 30 May the Spanish withdrew from further posts which had become indefensible. Meanwhile, the French miners continued working. On 31 May the defending troops were withdrawn to the main wall. Bastion Barlaimont was also in danger of being taken by an attack after the work by French miners.

The governor of the fortress convened a council of war. As there was no hope of a relief army and he feared pillages and massacres in the city after a takeover, he started to negotiate a surrender. These negotiations did not bring results, and the gun fire from both sides became heavier than ever. In the smaller sites of the siege, especially in the area of the castle, the attackers were making breaches. In the end it was clear to the defenders that they could not hold out. On 3 June they raised a white flag and asked for negotiations. Both sides ceased fire, and soon negotiated an honourable surrender.

Four days later, the garrison was allowed to leave the city with 1,300 to 2,000 surviving soldiers [1] (according to different sources) with their horses and weaponry.


Initially, the rulers of Europe viewed the French Revolution as a dispute between the French king and his subjects, and not something in which they should interfere. As revolutionary rhetoric grew more strident, they declared the interest of the monarchs of Europe as one with the interests of Louis XVI and his family this Declaration of Pilnitz (27 August 1791) threatened ambiguous, but quite serious, consequences if anything should happen to the royal family. The position of the revolutionaries became increasingly difficult. Compounding their problems in international relations, French émigrés continued to agitate for support of a counter-revolution. Finally, on 20 April 1792, the French National Convention declared war on Austria. In this War of the First Coalition (1792–98), France ranged itself against most of the European states sharing land or water borders with her, plus Portugal and the Ottoman Empire. [1] Despite some victories in 1792, by early 1793, France was in terrible crisis: French forces had been pushed out of Belgium also there was revolt in the Vendée over conscription wide-spread resentment of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and the French king had just been executed. The armies of the French Republic were in a state of disruption the problems became even more acute following the introduction of mass conscription, the levée en massee, which saturated an already distressed army with thousands of illiterate, untrained men. [2] For the French, the Rhine Campaign of 1795 proved especially disastrous, although they had achieved some success in other theaters of war (see for example, War of the Pyrenees (1793–1795)). [1]

Campaign in 1796

The armies of the First Coalition included the imperial contingents and the infantry and cavalry of the various states, amounting to about 125,000 (including three autonomous corps), a sizable force by eighteenth century standards but a moderate force by the standards of the Revolutionary wars. In total, though, the commander-in-chief Archduke Charles’ troops stretched from Switzerland to the North Sea and Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser’s, from the Swiss-Italian border to the Adriatic. Habsburg troops comprised the bulk of the army, but the thin white line of Habsburg infantry could not cover the territory from Basel to Frankfurt with sufficient depth to resist the pressure of their opponents. [Note 1] Compared to French coverage, Charles had half the number of troops covering a 211-mile (340 km) front that stretched from Renchen near Basel to Bingen. Furthermore, he had concentrated the bulk of his force, commanded by Count Baillet Latour, between Karlsruhe and Darmstadt, where the confluence of the Rhine and the Main made an attack most likely, as it offered a gateway into eastern German states and ultimately to Vienna, with good bridges crossing a relatively well-defined river bank. To his north, Wilhelm von Wartensleben’s autonomous corps [Note 2] covered the line between Mainz and Giessen. The Austrian army consisted of professionals, many moved from the border regions in the Balkans, and conscripts drafted from the imperial circles. [3] [Note 3]

Two French generals, Jean Baptiste Jourdan and Jean Victor Moreau, commanded (respectively) the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse and the Army of the Rhine and Moselle at the outset of the 1796 campaign. The French citizen’s army, created by mass conscription of young men and systematically divested of old men who might have tempered the rash impulses of teenagers and young adults, and had already made itself odious, by reputation and rumor at least, throughout France. Furthermore, it was an army entirely dependent upon the countryside for its material support. After April 1796, pay was made in metallic value, but pay was still in arrears. Throughout the spring and early summer, the unpaid French army was in almost constant mutiny: in May 1796, in the border town of Zweibrücken, the 74th Demi-brigade revolted. In June, the 17th Demi-brigade was insubordinate (frequently) and in the 84th Demi-brigade, two companies rebelled. The French commanders understood that an assault into the German states was essential, not only in terms of war aims, but also in practical terms: the French Directory believed that war should pay for itself, and did not budget for the payment or feeding of its troops. [4] [5]

In Spring, 1796, when resumption of war appeared eminent, the 88 members of the Swabian Circle, which included most of the states (ecclesiastical, secular, and dynastic) in Upper Swabia, had raised a small force of about 7,000 men. These were literally raw recruits, field hands and day laborers drafted for service, but usually untrained in military matters. It was largely guess work where they should be placed, and Charles did not like to use the militias in any vital location. [6] Consequently, in early late May and early June, when the French started to mass troops by Mainz as if they would cross there—they even engaged the Imperial force at Altenkirchen (4 June) and Wetzler and Uckerath (15 June)—Charles thought that main attack would occur there and felt few qualms placing the 7,000-man Swabian militia at the crossing by Kehl. [7] On 24 June, though, at Kehl, Moreau’s advance guard, 10,000, preceded the main force of 27,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry directed at the Swabian pickets on the bridge. [7] The Swabians were hopelessly outnumbered and could not be reinforced. Most of the Imperial Army of the Rhine was stationed further north, by Mannheim, where the river was easier to cross, but too far away to support the smaller force at Kehl. Neither the Condé’s troops in Freiburg nor Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg's force in Rastatt could reach Kehl in time to support them. [8] Within a day, Moreau had four divisions across the river. Thrust out of Kehl, the Swabian contingent reformed at Rastatt by 5 July. There they managed to hold the city until the French turned both flanks. Charles could not move much of his army away from Mannheim or Karlsruhe, where the French had also formed across the river, and Fürstenberg could not hold the southern flank. Furthermore, at Hüningen, near Basel, on the same day that Moreau's advance guard crossed at Kehl, Ferino executed a full crossing, and advanced unopposed east along the German shore of the Rhine with the 16th and 50th Demi-brigades, the 68th, 50th and 68th line infantry, and six squadrons of cavalry that included the 3rd and 7th Hussars and the 10th Dragoons. [Note 4] [9]

The Habsburg and Imperial armies were in danger of encirclement, as the French pressed hard at Rastatt. Ferino moved quickly east along the shore of the Rhine from there, an approach from the rear might have flanked the entire force. [10] To prevent this, Charles executed an orderly withdrawal in four columns through the Black Forest, across the Upper Danube valley, and toward Bavaria, trying to maintain consistent contact with all flanks as each column withdrew through the Black Forest and the Upper Danube. By mid-July, the column encamped near Stuttgart. The third column, which included the Condé’s Corps, retreated through Waldsee to Stockach, and eventually Ravensburg. The fourth Austrian column, the smallest (three battalions and four squadrons), Ludwig Wolff de la Marselle, marched the length of the Bodensee’s northern shore, via Überlingen, Meersburg, Buchhorn, and the Austrian city of Bregenz. [11]

Given the size of the attacking force, Charles had to withdraw far enough into Bavaria to align his northern flank in a perpendicular line with Wartensleben's autonomous corps to protect the Danube valley and deny the French primary access to Vienna. His own front would prevent Moreau from flanking Wartensleben from the south and together they could resist the French onslaught. [12] In the course of this withdrawal, he abandoned the Swabian Circle to the French. For the Swabians to negotiate neutrality, their militia needed to disband. At the end of July, eight thousand of Charles' men executed a dawn attack on the camp of the remaining three thousand Swabian and Condé’s immigrant troops, disarmed them, and impounded their weapons. [13] As Charles withdrew further east, the neutral zone established in Swabia expanded, eventually to encompass most of southern German states and the Ernestine Duchies. [14]

Summer of maneuvers

The summer and fall included various conflicts throughout the southern territories of the German states as the armies of the Coalition and the armies of the Directory sought to flank each other: [15]

Principal Conflicts in southern German States
Rhine Campaign 1796
Date Location French Imperial Victor
4 June Altenkirchen 48,000 64,000 French
15 June Wetzlar and Uckerath 20,000 20,000 Austrian
23–24 June Kehl 10,000 7,000 French
28 June Rastatt 20,000 6,000 French
9 July Ettlingen 36,000 32,000 French
11 August Neresheim 47,000 43,000 French
24 August Amberg 40,000 2,500 Imperial
24 August Friedberg 59,000 35,500 French
3 September Würzburg 30,000 30,000 Imperial
2 October Biberach 35,000 15,000 French
19 October Emmendingen 32,000 28,000 Imperial
24 October Schliengen 32,000 24,000 Imperial
24 October – 9 January 1797 Kehl 20,000 40,000 Imperial
27 November – 1 February 1797 Hüningen 25,000 9,000 Imperial
Source: Digby Smith, Napoleonic Wars Data Book, Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1996, pp.𧅯–118.

By mid-summer, the situation looked grim for the Coalition: Wartensleben continued to withdraw to the east-northeast despite Charles' orders to unite with him. It appeared probable that Jourdan or Moreau would outmaneuver Charles by driving a wedge between his force and that of Wartensleben. At Neresheim on 11 August, Moreau crushed Charles' force, forcing him to withdraw further east. At last, however, with this loss, Wartensleben recognized the danger and changed direction, moving his corps to join at Charles' northern flank. At Amberg on 24 August, Charles inflicted a defeat on the French, yet that same day, his commanders lost a battle to the French at Friedberg. Regardless, the tide had turned in the Coalition's favor. Both Jourdan and Moreau had overstretched their lines, moving far into the German states, and were separated too far from each other for one to offer the other aid or security. The Coalition's concentration of troops forced a wider wedge between the two armies of Jourdan and Moreau, similar to what the French had tried to do to Charles and Wartensleben. As the French withdrew toward the Rhine, Charles and Wartensleben pressed forward. On 3 September at Würzburg, Jourdan attempted to halt his retreat. Once Moreau received word of the French defeat, he had to withdraw from southern Germany. He pulled his troops back through the Black Forest, with Ferino supervising the rear guard. The Austrian corps commanded by Latour drew too close to Moreau at Biberach and lost 4,000 men taken as prisoners, some standards and artillery, after which Latour followed at a more prudent distance. [15]

Winthrop Sargent was born in Gloucester, Mass. on 1 May 1753 into a family of merchant-mariners that had been influential in Gloucester since the middle of the 17th century. He received his education at Harvard, then signed onto one of his father's ships and traveled widely in the West Indies and Europe. When he returned to Massachusetts, the Revolution had begun, and his vessel was seized by the British as it entered Boston Harbor. Sargent escaped on a fishing boat and reached Gloucester safely. He immediately joined the patriot cause.

Sargent served in the artillery for the duration of the war. He participated in the siege of Boston, went with the American army to New York, and, until 1778, took part in most of the battles fought by Washington's army--Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Monmouth. He spent the winter of 1777-1778 at Valley Forge, Pa. before he and Henry Knox, chief of artillery in the American army, were sent to Congress to plead for more food and clothing for the troops. After 1778, Sargent worked as an aide to Major General Robert Howe, spending most of the time on garrison duty. In 1783, Congress conferred on him the rank of major just as he was being mustered out of the army.

Sargent's health was suffering after seven years of service, and he spent a good part of the next three years recuperating in Gloucester. In 1786, with the help of Henry Knox, Sargent was chosen to be one of the surveyors of the Northwest Territory. He spent the last half of 1786 as a surveyor in Ohio, drawing the 5th Range, but winter and the hostility of the Native Americans prevented him from finishing the job. Sargent was impressed with the Ohio country, and in 1787, he became secretary of the newly formed Ohio Company, a land-speculation organization of New England veterans and businessmen. He and the Reverend Manasseh Cutler lobbied Congress to secure the land grant, which passed late in 1787.

Though Sargent withdrew from the Scioto River venture when it proved embarrassing, he was one of the most active members of the Ohio Company, selling a total of 157 shares. When Congress appointed General Arthur St. Clair governor of the Northwest Territory, the directors of the Ohio Company helped to get Sargent elected as secretary. Though the position was not a lucrative one, the secretary was empowered, under a law passed by Congress in 1789, to serve as acting governor in case of the governor's absence.

In the spring of 1788, the first settlers of the Ohio Company went west and founded the town of Marietta. Sargent arrived a few weeks later and, within a year or so, became a well-established member of the community. In 1789, he married Rowena Tupper, the daughter of General Benjamin Tupper of Revolutionary War fame. Unfortunately, Sargent's wife died in childbirth a year later, along with the child. When Cincinnati became the seat of government in 1791, Sargent moved to that city and built a house and garden, where he could pursue his interest in horticulture.

However, the Native Americans in the Northwest Territory did not recognize the white settlers' claim on the land, and clashes between the two groups were frequent and bloody. After Colonel John Hardin's defeat at Kekionga in October 1790, Washington ordered St. Clair to launch another military expedition against the Native Americans. Sargent was appointed adjutant-general, and it fell to him to shape the undisciplined recruits into an effective fighting force. However, faced with a shortage of men and supplies, the laziness and inexperience of the recruits, friction between St. Clair and his second-in-command General Richard Butler, and poor weather conditions, the American forces were defeated in the Battle of the Wabash on 4 November 1791. Sargent himself was wounded twice.

After the Wabash disaster, St. Clair traveled to Philadelphia to defend himself against charges of incompetence, leaving Sargent as acting governor. Sargent's responsibilities included: reorganizing the militia, providing for defense against Native American raids, cooperating with federal military forces in the area, and preserving law and order. He rigorously enforced the letter of the law and passed additional legislation to deal with specific frontier problems. As a result, his relations with the people of the territory were often strained. He had more success in settling conflicting land claims, establishing new counties, and setting up the basic institutions of government. When the British evacuated Detroit after Jay's Treaty, Sargent promptly extended civil jurisdiction to the Detroit area and established Wayne County. However, this action angered St. Clair, who had returned to the territory and who resented what he considered Sargent's usurpation of power.

In 1798, Sargent was appointed governor of the Mississippi Territory, and he moved to Natchez, the seat of the territorial government. There he instituted many of the same strict policies he had adopted in Ohio, which again angered his constituents. His opponents launched a campaign against him, and anti-Sargent candidates were elected to the legislature and the Council. They objected to the harsh criminal code Sargent had implemented and accused him of lining his own pockets with tavern and marriage license fees. In 1801, Sargent--a Federalist--appealed to President Thomas Jefferson for reappointment, but he was replaced by Jeffersonian William C. C. Claiborne. That same year, Sargent published two pamphlets in his own defense, Papers in Relation to the Official Conduct of Governour Sargent and Political Intolerance, or the Violence of Party Spirit Exemplified in a Recent Removal from Office.

Shortly after his arrival in Natchez, Sargent had married Mary McIntosh Williams, and the couple had two sons, William Fitz-Winthrop Sargent and George Washington Sargent. They built a house called Gloster Place on Mrs. Sargent's plantation, and after his retirement from public office, Sargent supervised the work of the estate. He was an influential member of the community and a leader in the founding of the Bank of Mississippi, serving as one of its 13 superintendents for most of the rest of his life. A lifelong student of meteorology, botany, horticulture, geology, and archaeology, Sargent was a member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Massachusetts Historical Society. Between 1793 and 1815, he published articles and papers on subjects such as forestry, earthquakes, and Native American antiquities.

The Sargents lived briefly in Cambridge, Mass. from 1816 to 1818 before returning to Natchez. When Sargent, plagued by gout, was told by his doctors that a change of climate might bring him relief, the family made plans to move to Philadelphia. In 1820, on a steamboat en route to New Orleans, Sargent died suddenly of "gout of the stomach." He was 67 years old.

Siege of Kehl, 28 October 1796-10 January 1797 - History

While Charles and Moreau jockeyed for position on the eastern slope of the Black Forest, Franz Petrasch engaged the French at Bruchsal, where a sturdy bridge allowed for passage across the river. The troops there, under orders of General Marc Amand Élisée Scherb, included the 68th Demi-brigade and two squadrons of the 19th Dragoons, had remained behind after the Battle of Ettlingen to observe the garrisons of Mannheim and Philipsburg, and to defend passage into France. An initial attack on the French positioned resulted in favor of the French, who charged the Austrians with bayonet, and pushed Petrasch's troops back. Realizing that his command was too small to withstand a concerted attack by the stronger Austrians, Scherb began a withdrawal. On 5&ndash6 September, the Austrians and French spent most of the day skirmishing in advanced posts (Austrian) and rear guards (French) these skirmishes, though, masked the Austrian intention of approaching Kehl and securing the crossing over the Rhine between the village and Strasbourg. By 15 September, part of Scherb's force arrived in Kehl, after having been continually harassed between there and Bruchsal. Once established in Kehl, this small cadre sought to strengthened the fortifications but the lack of cooperation from villagers and local peasants, and the exhaustion of the troops, prevented enhancements from proceeding with any speed.

The French executed several attempts to retake the bridges. The 68th, under command of general Jean-Baptiste de Bressoles de Sisce, was repulsed three times by the superior Austrian numbers and the murderous fire of case shot from four cannons that lined the principal road. The French cavalry tried to retire into Kehl via the Kinzig bridge, but heavy Austrian fire destroyed most of them. Not until 19:00 did fortune favor the French, when Lieutenant Colonel Aspré and two hundred men of the Regiment Ferdinand were captured within the fort itself. The next in command, Major Delas, was badly wounded, and there remained no one in overall command of the 38th Regiment. The French general, Schauenburg, who had gone to Strasburg for troops, returned with some reinforcements and met at once an impetuous Austrian attack. At 22:00 the Austrians still held the redoubt and the houses at the edge of the village the arrival of a fresh battalion of the Habsburg Regiment Manfredini led to a new attack, but it was repulsed. The Austrians had insufficient reserves to meet the fresh troops from Strasbourg. By 23:00, the French had recovered the fort, Strasbourg, the village of Kehl and all of the French earthen works.

The village of Kehl was first mentioned in 1038. In 1338 the first permanent bridge between Kehl and Strasbourg was completed. In 1678 the city was taken over by France, as it was considered to be part of the defence system of Strasbourg. Hence the village was transformed into a fortress in 1683 by the French architect Vauban.

The Kehl garrison, under command of Balthazar Alexis Henri Schauenburg consisted only of one battalion of the 24th Demi-brigade and some detachments of the 104th. This was too weak to defend a position of such importance, or to develop additional extensive works. Recognizing Kehl's weakness, General Moreau detached a demi-brigade of infantry and a regiment of cavalry from his army in the Black Forest, with instructions to proceed by forced marches to Kehl, but General Petrasch sent Lieutenant Colonel Aspré, with two battalions, to occupy Renchen and to insure that Moreau's reinforcements did not augment the garrison at Kehl.

Until 1519, Kehl was part of the diocese of Strasbourg. Then, the village had to change religion at the order of the margraves and the first Lutheran minister took office. During the French occupation of the 1690s, Kehl became Roman Catholic again, only to revert to Lutheranism after being ceded back to the margrave of Baden. From the early 19th century up to 1914, Lutherans and Catholics shared one church building then, as the first building on the Kommissionsinsel the Catholic Church of St. Johann Nepomuk was erected.

Realizing that the siege was imminent, the French had destroyed most of the village of Kehl on 26 October, as the Battle of Schliengen concluded and Moreau's army withdrew toward Hüningen. Only the ruined walls of the church and post house remained. The French maintained control of the three main islands surrounding the Kehl crossings: Ilse de Estacade, Ilse de Escargots, and Isle de Ehrlin. Their control of these provided vital positions from which the French established their operations. The islands were connected to Kehl and to each other through a series of flying bridges (pontoon bridges) troops could also be moved by boat if necessary.

The Kehl garrison consisted of one battalion of the 24th Demi-brigade and some detachments of the 104th under command of Balthazar Alexis Henri Schauenburg. This was too weak a force to defend a position of such importance, or to develop additional extensive works. Moreau reported that some of Scherb's troops had arrived, but it is unclear which ones. Furthermore, the lack of cooperation from local peasant workers and the exhaustion of troops prevented the enhancements of the fortifications from proceeding with any speed. On the evening of 16 September, Petrasch and most of his column had arrived at Bischofsheim, immediately by Kehl, with three battalions and two squadrons more troops were not far behind. By 17 September, a small corps of Austrians approached the outskirts of Kehl and vigorously attacked the French sentries there this was merely a prelude to the more significant action the following day.

Kehl is a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg. It is located on the river Rhine, directly opposite the French city of Strasbourg (with Strasbourg tramway operating in Kehl).

In 1774, Kehl received town rights by the Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden. The village was badly damaged during the French Revolutionary Wars, especially during the Rhine Campaign of 1796, during the first and second battles of Kehl, and it was besieged by the Austrians in late 1796 until its surrender on 9 January 1797. During the First French Empire, Kehl was reunited with Strasbourg under the French First Republic, before being restored to Baden (now raised to an Electorate) in 1803. After briefly being subject to Austria, the city was finally returned to Baden (now a Grand Duchy) in 1815 and the fortress was dismantled.

During the Second World War, after the Battle of France, Kehl was turned into a suburb of Strasbourg. After the war, all citizens were expelled from Kehl. This state continued until 1953, when the city was returned to the Federal Republic of Germany and the refugees returned.

The city of Strasbourg lies next to Kehl over the Rhine river. Kehl station is located near the Europabrücke (Europe Bridge), which can be crossed on foot to enter Strasbourg. Bus line 21 used to connect Kehl with the nearest tram stations in Strasbourg. A tram link to Strasbourg has since been completed, as part of the extension of Strasbourg's tram line D. It opened on April 28, 2017, to Kehl station and was extended to Kehl city center in November 2018.

After the First World War, under article 65 of the Treaty of Versailles the harbour of Kehl was placed under French administration for seven years to prevent possible German attacks on the opposite newly French town of Strasbourg.

Before the break of dawn on 18 September (03:45), three Austrian columns attacked Kehl. The principal column, comprising the Regiment Ferdinand, crossed the Kinzig river above the French position and proceeded toward the dykes of the Rhine above Kehl. This placed them between Scherb and his force, and Kehl. Using the dykes as protection, and guided by some peasants who had been previously employed in strengthening the Kehl defenses, they advanced as far as the horn work on the Upper Rhine and entered a gorge which led them to the outskirts of the village. The second column of the Regiment Ferdinand, under command of Major Busch, proceeded via Sundheim toward Kehl, and obtained possession of the village itself, although not the bridge leading to Strasbourg. The third column, which included three companies of Serbians and a division of hussars, executed a false feint on the left bank of the river. One corps of reserve under command of Colonel Pongratz, approached as far as the French earthworks on the banks of the Rhine to support the columns ahead of him another, which included a battalion of the 12th Regiment, moved past the hamlet of Neumuhl (48.57°N, 7.84389°W) toward Kehl. Quickly, the Austrians possessed all the earthworks of the town, the village itself, and the fortress their skirmishers reached one side of the abutment of the old palisade bridge and advanced to the other side, crossing the islands formed by branches of the Kinzig and the Rhine. They halted almost under the eyes of the French sentinels there is some confusion about why they stopped, but apparently they mistook the abutment for the last bridge itself.

A German international for five years, Kehl appeared for the nation in two World Cups – finishing second in the 2002 edition – and Euro 2004.

Kehl station is a railway station in Kehl, a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg. It is situated on the Appenweier–Strasbourg railway, with trains crossing the Rhine into France to reach the latter destination. Both sides being within the Schengen Area, no passport or border controls apply.

Sigrid Kehl (born 23 November 1932) is a German operatic soprano and mezzo-soprano.

In the spring of 1874, Kehl came to Chippewa Falls and began construction of the Glen Mills, one and a half miles from Chippewa Falls. In the winter of 1875-76, he went into logging, and continued logging operations in connection with his other affairs. He operated the Glen Flouring Mills for A. E. Pound & Co., from 1876 to 1878, when he purchased the business for himself. In 1875, he became interested in the First National Bank as stockholder and director, and became vice-president of the bank. He had extensive investments in real estate in Dane and Sauk counties, and was a director of the company that published the Chippewa County Independent.

Born in Berlin, Kehl first studied singing at the Thuringian State Conservatory in Erfurt. Later she continued her education at the Berlin University of the Arts in piano and singing.

Kehl earned the first of his 31 caps for the German national team on 29 May 2001, in a 2–0 friendly win against Slovakia in Bremen where he came on for Marko Rehmer after 45 minutes. He scored his first goal on 15 August of that year, helping to a 5–2 triumph in Hungary in another exhibition game.

Kehl was claimed off waivers by the St. Louis Rams on September 15, 2010.

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