Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1981 - History

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 1981 - History

  • Pope John Paul II shot twice
  • Mitterand elected French premire
  • Martial law in Poland
  • Israel destroys Iraq's nuclear reactor
  • President proposes $180 billion
  • President Reagan fires air traffic controllers
  • Assasination attaempt on President Reagan
  • First woman elected to the Supreme Court
  • First Space Shuttle flight
  • Anwar Sadat Assasinated

Sports Highlights

NBA: Boston Celtics vs. Houston Rockets Series: 4-2
NCAA Football: Clemson Record: 12-0-0
Heisman Trophy: Marcus Allen, usc, RB points: 1,797
Stanley Cup: New York Islanders vs. Minnesota Northstars Series: 4-1
Super Bowl XV: Oakland Raiders vs. Philadelphia Eagles Score: 27-10
US Open Golf: David Graham Score: 273 Course: Merion GC Location: Ardmore, PA
World Series: Los Angeles Dodgers vs. New York Yankees Series: 4-2

Popular Music

1."The Tide is High" ... Blondie
2."Celebration" ... Kool and the Gang
3."9 to 5" ... Dolly Parton
4."I Love a Rainy Night" ... Eddie Rabbit
5."Keep on Loving You" ... REO Speedwagon
6."Rapture" ... Blondie
7."Kiss on My List" ... Daryl Hall & John Oates
8."Morning Train" ... Sheena Easton
9."Bette Davis Eyes" ... Kim Carnes
10."Medley: Stars on 45" ... Stars on 45

Popular Movies

1. Any Which Way You Can
2. Arthur 3. Bustin' Loose
4. Cannonball Run
5. Cheech and Cong's Nice Dream
6. Clash of the Titans
7. Endless Love
8. Excalibur
9. Flash Gordon
10. For Your Eyes Only

Most Popular Books

Fiction
1. "Noble House" by James Clavell
2. "The Hotel New Hampshire" by John Irving
3. "Cujo" by Stephen King
4. "An Indecent Obsession" by Colleen McCullough
5. "Gorky Park" by Martin Cruz Smith

Nonfiction
1. "Beverly Hills Diet" by Judy Mazel
2. "The Lord God Made Them All" by James Herriot
3. " 'Never Say Diet' Book" by Richard Simmons
4. "A Light in the Attic by Shel Silverstein
5. "Cosmos" by Carl Sagan

Most Popular Television Shows

1. Dallas (CBS)
2. 60 Minutes (CBS)
3. The Jeffersons (CBS)
4. Three's Company (ABC)
5. Alice (CBS)
6. The Dukes of Hazzard (CBS)
7. Too Close For Comfort (ABC)
8. ABC Monday Night Movie (ABC)
9. M*A*S*H (CBS)
10. One Day at a Time (CBS)

Academy Awards

Best Picture: "Chariots of Fire - Hugh Hudson"
Best Director: Warren Beatty ... " Reds"
Best Actor: Henry Fonda ... "On Golden Pond"
Best Actress: Katherine Hepburn ... "On Golden Pond"

Grammy Awards

Record of the Year: "Bette Davis Eyes" ... Kim Carnes
Song of the Year: "Bette Davis Eyes" ... Donna Weiss & Jackie DeShannon
Album of the Year: "Double Fantasy" ... John Lennon & Yoko Ono
Male Vocalist: Al Jarreau ... "Breakin' Away"
Female Vocalist: Lena Horne ... "Lena Horne: The Lady and Her Music"

Nobel Prizes

Chemistry
The prize was awarded jointly to: FUKUI, KENICHI, Japan, Kyoto University, Kyoto, b. 1918, d. 1998; and HOFFMANN, ROALD, U.S.A., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, b. 1937 (in Zloczow, Poland): "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

Literature
CANETTI, ELIAS, Great Britain, b. 1905 (in Rustschuk, Bulgaria), d. 1994: "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"

Peace
OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES Geneva, Switzerland.

Physiology or Medicine
The prize was awarded one half to: SPERRY, ROGER W., U.S.A., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, b. 1913, d. 1994: "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres" and the other half jointly to: HUBEL, DAVID H., U.S.A., Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, b. 1926 (in Canada); and WIESEL, TORSTEN N., Sweden, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, U.S.A., b. 1924: "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

Physics
The prize was awarded by one half jointly to: BLOEMBERGEN, NICOLAAS, U.S.A., Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, b. 1920 (in the Netherlands); and SCHAWLOW, ARTHUR L., U.S.A., Stanford University, Stanford, CA, b. 1921: "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"; and the other half to: SIEGBAHN, KAI M., Sweden, Uppsala University, Uppsala, b. 1918: "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"

Pulitzer Prizes

Drama: Beth Henley ... "Crimes of the Heart"
Fiction: John Kennedy Toole ... "A Confederacy of Dunces"
History: Lawrence A. Cremin ... "American Education: The American Experience 1783-1876"
International Reporting: Shirley Christian ... "Miami Herald"
National Reporting: John M. Crewdson ... "New York Times"
Public Service: "Charlotte (NC) Observer"

Tony Awards

Best Play: "Amadeus" ... Peter Shaffer
Best Musical: "42nd Street"
Best Actor in a play: Ian McKellen ... "Amadeus"
Best Actress in a play: Jane Lapotaire ... "Piaf"
Best Actor in a musical: Kevin Kline ... "The Pirates of Penzance"
Best Actress in a musical: Lauren Bacall ... "Woman of the Year"


What Happened in 1981 Important News and Events, Key Technology and Popular Culture

What happened in 1981 Major News Stories include The Aids Virus Identified, Iran Hostage Crisis Ends, Yorkshire Ripper is caught, Post It Notes launched, Riots UK Cities, Anwar Sadat assassinated. one of the most exciting was the First Flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia. This was also the first year that the Word Internet was mentioned and MS-DOS was released by Microsoft along with the first IBM PC. On the world stage the events that captured the imagination included Lady Diana Spencer marrying Charles The Prince of Wales. In Politics a little known group before Solidarity inspire popular protests and a general strike in Poland and the government in the UK starts the process of privatization of Nationalized Industries which is later followed by many other countries around the world.


Rigoberta Menchú

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Rigoberta Menchú, (born January 9, 1959, Chimel, Guatemala), Guatemalan Indian-rights activist, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1992.

Menchú, of the Quiché Maya group, spent her childhood helping with her family’s agricultural work she also likely worked on coffee plantations. As a young woman, she became an activist in the local women’s rights movement and joined with the Catholic church to advocate for social reform. The activism of Menchú and her family led to persecution by Guatemala’s military government. When a guerrilla organization became active in their region, her father, a leader of a peasant organization opposed to the government, was accused of guerrilla activities. During Guatemala’s ensuing civil war, he died in a fire while protesting human rights abuses by the military. Menchú’s younger brother was kidnapped, tortured, and killed by a military death squad in 1979, and her mother was kidnapped, raped, mutilated, and murdered by soldiers the following year. Menchú fled to Mexico in 1981 and was cared for there by members of a liberal Roman Catholic group. She soon joined international efforts to make the Guatemalan government cease its brutal counterinsurgency campaigns against Indian peasants, becoming a skilled public speaker and organizer in the course of her efforts.

Menchú gained international prominence in 1983 with her widely translated book I, Rigoberta Menchú, in which she tells the story of her impoverished youth and recounts in horrifying detail the torture-murders of her brother and mother. She received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 for her continuing efforts to achieve social justice and mutual reconciliation in Guatemala she used the prize money to found the Rigoberta Menchú Tum Foundation, an Indian advocacy organization. In the late 1990s her autobiography became the centre of controversy after its veracity was questioned, most notably by David Stoll in Rigoberta Menchú and the Story of All Poor Guatemalans (1999). Despite alleged inaccuracies in her story, Menchú continued to earn praise for bringing international attention to the situation in Guatemala. In 2004 she accepted President Óscar Berger’s offer to help implement the country’s peace accords.

Menchú created the Indian-led political movement Winaq (Mayan: “The Wholeness of the Human Being”) in February 2007. That September, as the candidate of a coalition between Winaq and the left-wing Encounter for Guatemala party, she ran for president of Guatemala but earned less than 3 percent of the vote. Her 2011 presidential bid was also unsuccessful.


Who Died Today in History?

    Louise Henriette, daughter of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, dies at 39 Abraham Crijnssen, Swiss admiral, conquered Suriname, dies

Jeanne Mance

1673 Jeanne Mance, French Canadian settler and founder of the first hospital in North America (Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal), dies at 66

    Johann Quirsfeld, German composer, dies at 43 Thomas "Tom" Brown, English translator and writer of satire (Amusements Serious and Comical, calculated for the Meridian of London), dies at 41 Michel-Richard Delalande, French baroque composer, dies at 68 John Aislabie, English politician (Chancellor of the Exchequer), dies at 71 Ambrose Philips, English poet (b. 1674)

Roald Amundsen

1928 Roald Amundsen, Norwegian polar explorer who led the 1st expedition to the South Pole, dies in a plane crash while flying on a rescue mission in the Arctic at 55

Maxim Gorky

1936 Maxim Gorky [Alexei M Peshkov], Russian writer (Mother), dies at 68

    Gaston Doumergue, 60th Prime Minister of France (1913-14 and 1934) and 1st protestant French President (1924-31), dies at 73 Frans "Sas" van Aerschot, Flemish operetta actor (Paljas), dies at 73 Adolf Opalka, Czech resistance fighter, shot down

Georgy Zhukov

1974 Georgy Zhukov, Russian deputy commander-in-chief of the Red Army during WWII (Battles of Stalingrad, Kursk and Berlin) and Minister of Defense, dies at 77


9 Bobby Sands wins Fermanagh and South Tyrone byelection

4 Bucks Fizz win the Eurovison song contest with Making Your Mind Up.

11 Brixton riots

11 Andrew Lloyd Webber's Cats opens in the West End

14 Ricky Villa's wonder goal wins FA Cup for Spurs against Manchester City

12 Raiders of the Lost Ark opens in the US

22 John McEnroe launches a tirade at the umpire in his first round match at Wimbledon, shouting "You cannot be serious!" (He later goes on to win the championship)

3 Arrest in Toxteth, Liverpool, sparks nine days of rioting

8 Riots spread to Moss Side, Manchester, followed by other towns and cities across England

21 England, inspired by Ian Botham and Bob Willis, win Headingley Test against the odds en route to Ashes victory

29 Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer get married at St Paul's Cathedral


Timeline of Women’s Achievements in History

1955: Seamstress Rosa Parks becomes a civil rights pioneer after refusing to give up her bus seat to a white passenger in Montgomery, Ala.

1966: Betty Goldstein Friedan founds the National Organization for Women (NOW)

1972: American journalist Gloria Steinem helps launch Ms. Magazine

1981: Sandra Day O’Connor is appointed first female justice of the US Supreme Court

1984: Geraldine Ferraro becomes the first woman vice-presidential nominee of a major US political party

1997: Czech-born American diplomat Madeleine Albright becomes the first female Secretary of State

1999: Col. Eileen Collins is the first woman to command a space shuttle

2005: Danica Patrick finishes fourth in the Indianapolis 500, the best finish ever for a woman in the race’s history

2007: Californian Nancy Pelosi is the first woman to serve as speaker of the US House of Representatives, making her the highest-ranking woman in US government history


How Much Is the Nobel Prize Worth?

The Nobel Prize honors scientific research, writing and actions that the Nobel Foundation feels exemplify service to humanity. The Nobel Prize comes with a diploma, medal, and cash award. Here is a look at how much the Nobel Prize is worth.

Each year the Nobel Foundation decides on the cash prize awarded to each Nobel laureate. The cash prize is 8 million SEK (about US$1.1 million or €1.16 million). Sometimes this goes to a single individual or the prize may be split between two or three recipients.

The exact weight of a Nobel medal varies, but each medal is 18 karats green gold plated with 24 karats (pure) gold, with an average weight of around 175 grams. Back in 2012, 175 grams of gold was worth $9,975. The modern Nobel Prize medal is worth in excess of $10,000!

The Nobel Prize medal may be worth even more than its weight in gold if the medal goes up for auction. In 2015, Nobel laureate Leon Max Lederman's Nobel prize sold at auction for $765,000. Lederman's family used the money to pay for medical bills associated with the scientist's battle with dementia.

The Nobel Prize garners prestige that translates into value for the university or institution affiliated with the laureate. The schools and companies are more competitive for grants, better equipped at fund raisers and attract students and brilliant researchers. A 2008 study published in the Journal of Health Economics even indicates Nobel Laureates live one to two years longer than their peers.


RGB composite color monitor has a sharp 13-inch diagonal measure picture. The Commodore 64 computer has 64K RAM. The 16-color selection reproduces games with close to arcade quality. 66-character keyboard includes upper and lower case letters along with four programmable function keys.

Wave of Terrorist attacks in France by Carlos the Jackal

All time record lows in dozens of cities throughout the Midwestern United States.

Israeli forces invade Lebanon

Thousands of palestinian refugees in refugee camps in West Beirut murdered by Lebanese militia

Israeli returns Sinai to Egypt

The largest cash robbery in History occurs in New York when $9,800,000 is stolen from an armored car

The First Issue of USA Today is published

Disney Futuristic Park EPCOT ( Experimental Community Of Tomorrow )is opened

IRA bombing campaign in London

The Provisional IRA continues it's bombing campaign in London and Mainland Britain

Laker Airways the first of the low cost airlines operating out of the UK Folds

Around 700,000 demonstrators gathered in New York City's Central Park protesting the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

Michael Fagan Brakes Into The Queens Bedroom in Buckingham Palace

International Whaling Commission

The International Whaling Commission decides to end commercial whaling

Tylenol capsules laced with potassium cyanide

Tylenol capsules laced with potassium cyanide kill 7 in Chicago September 29th

The Mary Rose, flagship of Henry VIII of England is raised in the Solent on October 11th and taken to Portsmouth Dockyard where it is preserved and on show to the public

Channel 4 is launched in UK

Lech Walesa, leader of the outlawed Solidarity movement is released after 11 months in jail

Yassar Arafat elected the President of the Palestinian National Council

First artificial heart US

Doctors performed the first implant of a permanent artificial heart designed by Robert Jarvik

Severe recession begins in the United States

Severe recession begins in the United States.

The world's largest oil rig ( The Ocean Ranger ) sinks in the north Atlantic

The Serial killer Clifford Robert Olson is covicted and given 11 concurrent life sentences for the murder of 11 children in Canada

Italy Wins 1982 World Cup in Spain

Leonid Brezhnev the General Secretary of the Communist Party dies of a heart attack while in office.

Vietnam Veterans Memorial

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington DC is dedicated

Gates connecting Gibraltar are opened after 13 years to allow pedestrian access to and from Spain

Earthquake and a volcanic eruption at El Chichon in southern Mexico kills thousands


Mayo Clinic History & Heritage

"My Brother and I" bronze figures, Rochester, Minn.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt with the Mayo brothers, 1934

Mayo Clinic ambulance at the Colonial Hospital, 1915

1950 Nobel Prize for discovering cortisone

Vintage tools and plans for our 1922 hospital expansion

Mayo Clinic switchboard, circa 1950


Biographical Sketch of NIMH Director, Joshua A. Gordon, M.D., Ph.D.

Joshua A. Gordon, M.D., Ph.D. is the Director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). NIMH is the lead federal agency for research on mental disorders.

Dr. Gordon pursued a combined M.D.-Ph.D. degree at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Medical school coursework in psychiatry and neuroscience convinced him that the greatest need, and greatest promise, for biomedical science was in these areas. During his Ph.D. thesis with Dr. Michael Stryker, Dr. Gordon pioneered the methods necessary to study brain plasticity in the mouse visual system.

Upon completion of the dual degree program at UCSF, Dr. Gordon went to Columbia University for his psychiatry residency and research fellowship because of the breadth and depth of the research opportunities there. Working with Dr. Rene Hen, Dr. Gordon and colleagues studied the role of the hippocampus, a brain structure known to be important for memory and emotional processes associated with anxiety and depression. He joined the Columbia faculty in 2004 as an assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry.

Dr. Gordon’s research focuses on the analysis of neural activity in mice carrying mutations of relevance to psychiatric disease. His lab studied genetic models of these diseases from an integrative neuroscience perspective, focused on understanding how a given disease mutation leads to a behavioral phenotype across multiple levels of analysis. To this end, he employs a range of systems neuroscience techniques, including in vivo imaging, anesthetized and awake behavioral recordings, and optogenetics, which is the use of light to control neural activity. His research has direct relevance to schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, and depression.

In addition to his research, Dr. Gordon was an associate director of the Columbia University/New York State Psychiatric Institute Adult Psychiatry Residency Program, where he directed the neuroscience curriculum and administered research training programs for residents. Dr. Gordon also maintained a general psychiatric practice, caring for patients who suffer from the illnesses he studied in his lab at Columbia.

Dr. Gordon’s work has been recognized by several prestigious awards, including the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation – NARSAD Young Investigator Award, the Rising Star Award from the International Mental Health Research Organization, the A.E. Bennett Research Award from the Society of Biological Psychiatry, and the Daniel H. Efron Research Award from the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

NIMH Directors

Joshua A. Gordon


Einstein’s Later Life (1939-1955)

In the late 1930s, Einstein’s theories, including his equation E=mc2, helped form the basis of the development of the atomic bomb. In 1939, at the urging of the Hungarian physicist Leo Szilard, Einstein wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt advising him to approve funding for the development of uranium before Germany could gain the upper hand. Einstein, who became a U.S. citizen in 1940 but retained his Swiss citizenship, was never asked to participate in the resulting Manhattan Project, as the U.S. government suspected his socialist and pacifist views. In 1952, Einstein declined an offer extended by David Ben-Gurion, Israel’s premier, to become president of Israel.

Throughout the last years of his life, Einstein continued his quest for a unified field theory. Though he published an article on the theory in Scientific American in 1950, it remained unfinished when he died, of an aortic aneurysm, five years later. In the decades following his death, Einstein’s reputation and stature in the world of physics only grew, as physicists began to unravel the mystery of the so-called “strong force” (the missing piece of his unified field theory) and space satellites further verified the principles of his cosmology.


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