Second Treaty of Paris - History

Second Treaty of Paris - History

With the capture of Napoleon the second treaty of Paris was signed. Under its terms the French were forced to pay an indemnity of 700 million francs for the 100 days. The French also gave up the Saar and Savoy. Foreign troops occupied France for three to five years, and the French were forced to pay for the maintenance of the troops. A secret treaty was signed among the European powers committing them to suppress revolutions both in France and throughout Europe. This became known as the Concert of Europe.

Second Treaty of Paris

The Second Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of Paris of 1815, was signed on November 20, 1815, following the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, 18 June.

Following the Hundred Days after Napoleon's escape from Elba, it was stricter than the Treaty of 1814, which had been negotiated through the maneuvers of Talleyrand, because of reservations raised by the recent widespread support for Napoleon in France.

France was reduced to its 1790 boundaries — it lost the territorial gains of the Revolutionary armies in 1790-92, which the previous treaty allowed France to keep. France was also ordered to pay 700 million francs in indemnities and to maintain at its own expense an Allied army of occupation of 150,000 soldiers in the border territories of France for a maximum of five years.

Although some of the Allies, notably Prussia, initially demanded that France cede major territory in the east, rivalry among the powers and the general desire to secure the Bourbon restoration made the peace settlement less onerous than it might have been. This time France was not a signatory: the treaty was signed for Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia.

The treaty is promulgated "In the Name of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity," a foretaste of the return of the exiled Jesuits and the renewed role of religion, especially of Roman Catholicism, in the reaction to the Napoleonic Era. The treaty is brief. In addition to having "preserved France and Europe from the convulsions with which they were menaced by the late enterprise of Napoleon Bonaparte" the signers of the Treaty also repudiate the French Revolution: ". and by the revolutionary system reproduced in France."

The treaty is presented "in the desire to consolidate, by maintaining inviolate the Royal authority, and by restoring the operation of the Constitutional Charter, the order of things which had been happily re-established in France." The Constitutional Charter that is referred to so hopefully, was the Constitution of 1791, promulgated under the Ancien régime at the outset of the Revolution. Its provisions for the government of France would rapidly fall by the wayside, "notwithstanding the paternal intentions of her King" as the treaty remarks.

The first Treaty of Paris, of May 30, 1814, and the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna, of June 9, 1815, were confirmed.

On the same day, in a separate document, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia renewed the Quadruple Alliance.


Introduction

The Treaty of Paris ended the Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States, recognized American independence and established borders for the new nation. After the British defeat at Yorktown, peace talks in Paris began in April 1782 between Richard Oswarld representing Great Britain and the American Peace Commissioners Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and John Adams. The American negotiators were joined by Henry Laurens two days before the preliminary articles of peace were signed on November 30, 1782. The Treaty of Paris, formally ending the war, was not signed until September 3, 1783. The Continental Congress, which was temporarily situated in Annapolis, Maryland, at the time, ratified the Treaty of Paris on January 14, 1784.


As an American myself, I’m embarrassed to say that I didn’t realize how involved France was in the American Revolution. Maybe I just wasn’t paying attention in history class!

Now that I know, I feel extremely thankful for the role that the French played in helping America declare independence from Great Britain all of those years ago. The Treaty of Paris helped bring an end to the Revolutionary War, and it was signed in, you guessed it, Paris, France!

Keep reading to learn more about the Treaty of Paris and the American Revolution!

1. The Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolutionary War

Siege of Yorktown. General Rochambeau and general Washington give last orders before an attack, October 1781 by Auguste Couder – WikiCommons

The American Revolutionary War was a battle between the 13 original colonies and Great Britain for control over America. The war officially broke out in 1775, and the original colonies declared their independence in 1776.

By the time 1781 rolled around, the British had surrendered at Yorktown, and all sides were ready to see the war come to an end. However, even after the battle at Yorktown, smaller battles continued to wage between the British and the colonies for almost 2 years. The British King George III was not ready to let go of his colonies in America.

Finally, in February 1783, King George issued a Proclamation of Cessation of Hostilities, which brought the fighting to an end. It actually took a very long time for the war to officially end, and for the 13 colonies to officially become the United States of America. More on all of these details coming up!

2. There are two very important points in the Treaty of Paris

Page 1 of the Treaty of Paris from The U.S. National Archives – WikiCommons

In addition to ending the American Revolutionary War, the Treaty of Paris included many terms that both the British and the Americans were required to adhere to. These terms were, of course, in favor towards the Americans.

There are two very important points in the Treaty of Paris that I’d like to mention here. The first, and arguably the most important, is that the 13 colonies were no longer under Britain’s control, and were to be considered free and independent.

The second important point is that the new borders that were agreed upon allowed for western expansion. This point may have not been very important at the time, but in later years when Americans began to explore the west, it would make things much easier!

3. King George III didn’t sign the Treaty of Paris himself

King George III at his coronation by Allan Ramsay – WikiCommons

Like all good kings, King George III had several people working for him. And by several, I mean several hundreds, if not thousands. He was the king of the British Empire after all, which was very large at the time.

Rather than signing the Treaty of Paris himself, King George III sent a representative to do it for him. While this may sound strange, it was quite normal at the time. Kings just weren’t seen out and about, even if it was to sign an important treaty that would bring a bloody war to an end.

King George III sent two men to represent him: David Hartley and Richard Oswald. Hartley was a statesman and an inventor, and Oswald was a merchant and a slave trader. Both are best known as the “peace commissioners” that signed the treaty.

4. Three important Americans signed the Treaty of Paris

The last page of the Treaty of Paris with signatures from The U.S. National Archives – WikiCommons

America sent three men to sign the Treaty of Paris. Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and John Adams. Adams was the Diplomat to France, and was sent to Paris to start negotiations in 1782. All three of the men are considered to be Founding Fathers of the United States.

Franklin is known for his writing, his scientific discoveries, and his inventions. Franklin invented the lighting rod, bifocals, and the Franklin Stove.

Jay is known as an abolitionist and for his involvement in the development of the new United States of America. He is also famous for signing the Treaty of Paris.

Adams is known for his writing, and his diaries are famous and well read. They are a great historical document to reference to discover the goings on of the 18th century. Adams was also the 2nd president of the United States!

5. The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783, but the British surrendered in 1781

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown by John Trumbull – WikiCommons

I’ve already mentioned that the British surrendered at Yorktown in 1781. But, that didn’t mean that the war was officially over, or that the 13 colonies were officially independent. Like most things, negotiations took a very long time. I like to think that this is because King George III was less than thrilled to give up his American colonies.

It took about one and a half years for King George to ratify the treaty. The British surrendered at Yorktown on October 19, 1871. John Adams was sent to France for negotiations in 1782, and the Treaty of Paris was signed by the Americans and the British on September 3, 1783.

6. Spain was also involved in the American Revolutionary War and the Treaty of Paris

Spanish troops led by Bernardo de Gálvez in combat against the British at Pensacola by Augusto Ferrer Dalmau – WikiCommons

In addition to France, Spain was also involved in the American Revolutionary War. In 1782, the French were ready for the war to be over, but Spain resisted. They wanted the war to continue so that they would capture the British colony of Gibraltar.

The French Foreign Minister at the time, Charles Gravier, Count of Vergennes, managed to convince Spain to take a different deal. To compensate for Gibraltar, Spain was given the area south of the Ohio River. Spain would be able to set up was was called an “Indian barrier state” that was controlled by Spain. The concept of this barrier state was essentially a buffer between the United States and Spanish territory.

Spain was also given Florida as a part of the deal.

7. The Treaty of Paris included several different terms

Commemorative plaque of the treaty of Paris, affixed on the building of rue Jacob (N° 56) where the treaty was signed by Mu – WikiCommons

I’ve already touched on some of the most important terms of the Treaty of Paris, but the treaty itself was made up of 10 key points. The first two you’ll find more in depth above: the independence of the United States and the new boundaries.

The other points included fishing rights (this was important stuff back then!), a new law that required debtors to pay their debts, another law required that all seized property be returned to their rightful owners (those that supported King George were called « Loyalists, » and they were persecuted during the war), all Prisoners of War were to be released, both Great Britain and the United States were given access to the Mississippi River, and the treaty was required to be ratified within six months of it’s signing date.

8. There is an unfinished painting depicting the signing of the Treaty of Paris

The Treaty of Paris by Benjamin West – WikiCommons

In celebration of the end of the Revolutionary War and the Treaty of Paris, artist Benjamin West began a painting depicting the singing of the treaty. West was American, and wanted to share the good news with the world!

The painting was never finished, as while the American representatives agreed to pose for the painting, the Brits refused. In addition to Franklin, Jay and Adams, the United States peace commissioners included Henry Laurens and William Temple Franklin. The unfinished painting shows the group of five, and a blank space beside them, as you can see above.

9. There is only one article from the Treaty of Paris that still stands today

Due to many changes after many years, there is only one article from the Treaty of Paris that still stands today. It is “Article 1” and it states that,

“Britain acknowledges the United States (New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia) to be free, sovereign, and independent states, and that the British Crown and all heirs and successors relinquish claims to the Government, property, and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof,”

Basically, the only article from the Treaty of Paris that is still recognized today is that the original 13 colonies are independent from Great Britain and the Crown.

10. There are several Treaties of Paris

Map of North America after the Peace of Paris of 1783 by Esemono – WikiCommons

As there were several countries involved in the American Revolutionary War, it makes sense that there were several treaties that needed to be signed in order to end the conflict.

The group of treaties are referred to as the “Peace of Paris.” The Treaty of Paris was signed, as we know, in Paris on September 3, 1783. There were then two other treaties signed at Versailles between the French king and the Spanish king soon after.

There was also another treaty that was drafted on September 2 between the French and the Dutch. This treaty, while it doesn’t refer directly to the American Revolutionary War, is also related. The Dutch and the British experienced difficulties during the war as the Dutch wanted to continue trade with the 13 colonies and the British did not appreciate it (to put it lightly). This treaty was not officially signed until May 20, 1784.

Conclusion

Now you know some important facts about the Treaty of Paris and the American Revolution! Did you know that there were several different countries involved in the conflict? Did you know that it took months for the Treaty of Paris to actually be ratified by King George III? Well…know you know!

If you want to learn more about French history, why not going one of our walking tours the next time you are in Paris? Our local guides really know their stuff, and Paris is practically an open history book just waiting to be explored! Click here to learn more about all of the options and to make your booking.

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Molli is a writer who lives and breathes Paris. When not writing, you can find her in a cafe with a coffee in her hand and her nose in a book. She also enjoys reading and long walks on the beach as she actually grew up on the seaside!

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Treaty of Paris (1783)

This treaty, signed on September 3, 1783, between the American colonies and Great Britain, ended the American Revolution and formally recognized the United States as an independent nation.

The American War for Independence (1775-83) was actually a world conflict, involving not only the United States and Great Britain but also France, Spain, and the Netherlands. The peace process brought a vaguely formed, newly born United States into the arena of international diplomacy, playing against the largest, most sophisticated, and most established powers on earth.

The three American negotiators, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay, proved themselves to be masters of the game, outmaneuvering their counterparts and clinging fiercely to the points of national interest that guaranteed a future for the United States. Two crucial provisions of the treaty were British recognition of U.S. independence and the delineation of boundaries that would allow for American western expansion.

The treaty is named for the city in which it was negotiated and signed. The last page bears the signatures of David Hartley, who represented Great Britain, and the three American negotiators, who signed their names in alphabetical order.

Many treaty documents, however, can be considered as originals. In this case, for example, the United States and British representatives signed at least three originals, two of which are in the holdings of the National Archives. On one of the signed originals the signatures and wax seals are arranged horizontally on the other they are arranged vertically. In addition, handwritten certified copies were made for the use of Congress. Some online transcriptions of the treaty omit Delaware from the list of former colonies, but the original text does list Delaware.


Second Treaty of Paris - History

The Treaty of Paris was a formal agreement between America and Great Britain, signed on September 3, 1783. The signed agreement recognized American independence, established borders for the new nation, and formally ended the Revolutionary War. Articles of the treaty were being formed as early as 1782, and the Treaty of Paris was finally ratified by the Continental Congress in 1784. The treaty contained ten articles, or key points, and the preface declares the intention of both America and Great Britain to forget all past differences and misunderstandings.

Preparing for Peace

Following the British defeat at Yorktown, peace talks commenced in Paris in April, 1782. The intent of the peace commissioners was to define and write an agreement or treaty, in which both parties could agree. This formal documentation seemed necessary, in order to decrease the risk of further disputes taking place in the future over land or issues of control.

Before the Treaty of Paris was written, preliminary Articles of Peace were formed. In 1782, Great Britain approached Benjamin Franklin with an informal peace agreement, which would have provided the thirteen states with a certain level of sovereignty within the British Empire. Franklin declined, insisting on the British recognizing American independence, and also wanting a peace treaty formed for France, the states’ ally during the Revolutionary War. Franklin did agree to proceed with further negotiations, for a more formal end to the war.

American peace commissioners John Jay and John Adams joined Franklin in Paris, and formal negotiations with Great Britain began on September 27, 1782. After two long months of difficult bargaining, the Articles of Peace were written, which would later become the foundation for the Treaty of Paris.

Summary of the Ten Articles

The ten articles of the Treaty of Paris defined the agreement of peace between America and Great Britain. It was a most important document in history, because it was a formal declaration of peace, ending the Revolutionary War, and ending the struggle for America’s freedom from the British. The treaty consisted of ten important articles, each of which is very detailed, in order to prevent any ambiguity in the years following the signing.

The ten articles began with the acknowledgment of the United States as free, independent, and sovereign states, with the British relinquishing all claims. In the second article, boundaries are defined. The United States boundaries were considered generous, extending to the Mississippi River to the west, but in turn, Great Britain retained Canada. Article three states that America is guaranteed access to the Newfoundland fisheries.

Articles four through six, and nine address property and restitution of estates following the War. American Congress would recommend providing restitution of all estates and properties which were taken during the war. Both America and Great Britain would recognize their own contracted debts to be paid to creditors, and the United States would prevent future confiscations of property. Article seven guaranteed releasing any prisoners of war on either side. Article eight grants perpetual access of the Mississippi River to the United States and Great Britain. The final article indicated that ratification of the treaty was to occur within six months of signing.

Aftermath

With autonomy from Great Britain, some of the former protections such as Mediterranean Sea protection from pirates was withdrawn from the British. Individual states continued to ignore recommendations to return confiscated British property, and there were many disputes over boundaries. Native Americans were completely ignored when forming the Treaty, and boundaries which were set, were often ignored.

America’s ability to bargain on these issues was strengthened by the creation of the new United States Constitution in 1787. The Treaty of Paris was a starting point for future agreements, and a few disagreements. It was significant in history most notably, for formally acknowledging United States independence, and the end to a long war for freedom. The only article in the Treaty of Paris which still remains is article one.


French and Indian War Timeline

The French and Indian War was a war between Great Britain and France over control of the Ohio River Valley during the mid 18th century.

The French and Indian War, which took place between 1754-1763, later became a global war when it spread to Europe in 1756, which resulted in the Seven Years War.

The following is a timeline of events of the French and Indian War:

1534:
♦ On July 24, 1534, the colony of New France is established by the French in present-day Canada.

1681:
♦ On March 4, 1681, King Charles II grants William Penn a royal charter to establish the Province of Pennsylvania.

1689-97:
♦ The War of the League of Augsburg, known in North America as King William’s War, takes place and is considered the first of the French and Indian Wars.

1702-13:
♦ War of the Spanish Succession, known in North America as Queen Anne’s War, takes place and is considered the second of the French and Indian Wars.

1713:
♦ On April 11, 1713, Treaty of Utrecht is signed which brings the War of Spanish Succession to an end.
♦ On September 2, 1713, the French claim the land where they will build the town of Louisbourg and the Fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia.

Chronological Summary of the French and Indian Wars, published in A Pictorial School History of the United States, circa 1877

1734:
♦ The French establish Fort Saint-Frédéric at Crown Point on Lake Champlain.

1739-1748:
♦ The War of Jenkins’ Ear, which later merged into the War of the Austrian Succession, takes place.

1744-48:
♦ The War of the Austrian Succession, known in North America as King George’s War, takes place and is considered the third of the French and Indian Wars.

1748:
♦ On October 18, 1748, the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle brings the War of the Austrian Succession to an end.

1749:
♦ On May 19, 1749, King George II of England grants the Ohio Company a charter of several hundred thousand acres of land around the forks of the Ohio River.
♦ On June 21, 1749, the British establish the city of Halifax in Nova Scotia.
♦ Celeron de Bienville’s expedition into the Ohio River Valley takes place in the summer.

1752:
♦ On June 21, 1752, the French and their Indian allies attack the town of Pickawillany in Ohio and its inhabitants, taking five British traders prisoner and killing Piankashaw chieftain La Demoiselle, aka Memeskia.
♦ In July of 1752, Michel-Ange Duquesne de Menneville arrives as governor of New France.

1753:
♦ In December of 1753, Major George Washington arrives at Fort LeBoeuf in Pennsylvania and delivers an ultimatum to French Captain Legardeau de Saint-Pierre to abandon the fort and leave the Ohio River Valley. He rejects it.
♦ On December 16, 1753 Washington leaves Fort LeBoeuf with St. Pierre’s response.

1754:
♦ Major George Washington and 160 soldiers from the Virginia Regiment are sent to reinforce Fort Prince George near modern day Pittsburg, Ohio.
♦ On April 16, 1754, Fort Prince George is seized by French soldiers, before Washington can reach it, and is renamed Fort Duquesne.
♦ On May 28, 1754, the Battle of Jumonville Glen, which is the opening battle of the war, takes place near present-day Hopwood, Pennsylvania. French-Canadian commander Joseph Coulon de Jumonville is killed during the battle.
♦ On June 3, 1754, Washington and his troops complete Fort Necessity, at Great Meadows, to defend themselves against French troops enraged by Jumonville’s death.
♦ On June 19, 1754, the Albany Congress begins in Albany, New York.
♦ On July 3, 1754, the Battle of Fort Necessity takes place near present-day Farmington, Pennsylvania.
♦ On July 4, 1754, Washington surrenders Fort Necessity after losing nearly a third of his troops.
♦ In October of 1754, Washington resigns his Virginia command and returns to civilian life.

1755:
♦ In March of 1755, George Washington returns to military life after Braddock offers him a spot on his expedition to Fort Duquesne.
♦ In June of 1755, Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil arrives as governor of New France.
♦ In June of 1755, the British seize Acadia (present-day Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island in Canada) from the French.
♦ June 3-16, the Battle of Fort Beausejour takes place near present-day Sackville, New Brunswick.
♦ On June 9, 1755, British Vice Admiral Edward Boscawen captures two French ships, the ‘Alcide’ and ‘Lys’, in a naval battle off the coast of Newfoundland.
♦ On July 9, 1755, the Battle of the Wilderness, aka the Battle of Monongahela and the Battle of Braddock’s Field, takes place in Pennsylvania.
♦ On August 10, 1755, the Expulsion of the Acadians (descendants of French colonists and indigenous people) begins in Canada during which the British forcibly remove and deport the Acadian people from the colony of Acadia, which is present-day Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.
♦ On September 4, 1755, the Battle of Petitcodiac takes place in present-day New Brunswick.
♦ On September 8, 1755, the Battle of Lake George takes place in New York. This is the first important British victory over the French.

1756:
♦ On January 16, 1756, Great Britain and Prussia sign the Treaty of Wesminster, which was a treaty of neutrality between Prussia, Great Britain and Hanover that promised to preserve peace in Germany during the duration of the war by preventing the passage of foreign troops through the country.
♦ On March 27, 1756, the Battle of Fort Bull takes place at present-day Rome, New York.
♦ In April in 1756, the Battle of the Trough takes place in present-day West Virginia.
♦ On April 2, 1756, the Battle of Sideling Hill takes place in Pennsylvania. Exact location of the battle is unknown.
♦ On April 18, 1756, the Battle of Great Cacapon takes place in present-day West Virginia.
♦ On May 1, 1756, France and Austria sign the First Treaty of Versailles, which was an alliance between the two countries that promised mutual military support and assistance if either country was attacked by Great Britain or Prussia. Sweden also joined this anti-Prussian alliance.
♦ On May 8, 1756, the Raid on Lunenburg takes place in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia.
♦ On May 12, 1756, French commander Louis-Joseph de Montcalm arrives in Quebec.
♦ On May 17, 1756, the Seven Years War begins when Great Britain officially declares war on France.
♦ On May 20, 1756, the Battle of Minorca takes place in present-day Spain.
♦ On June 20, 1756, the Nawab of Bengal, Suraj Ud Dowla, captures Calcutta in India and reportedly confines British prisoners in the “Black Hole of Calcutta.”
♦ On August 10-14, 1756, the Battle of Fort Oswego takes place in present-day Oswego, New York.
♦ On August 29, 1756, Prussia invades Saxony.

1757:
♦ On January 21, 1757, the first Battle on Snowshoes takes place near Fort Carillon (now Fort Ticonderoga) in present-day New York.
♦ On February 2, 1757, Austria and Russia form the Austrio-Russian alliance at the Convention of St. Petersburgh.
♦ On March 23, 1757, the Battle of Chandannagar takes place in India.
♦ On May 1, 1757, Austria and France signed the Second Treaty of Versailles, which was an offensive alliance against Prussia.
♦ On June 18, 1757, the Battle of Kolin takes place in present-day Czech Republic.
♦ On June 23, 1757, the Battle of Plassey Grove takes place in India.
♦ On July 23, 1757, the Battle of Sabbath Day Point takes place in New York.
♦ On July 26, 1757, the Battle of Hastenback takes place in Hanover.
♦ On August 3-9, 1757, the Siege of Fort William Henry takes place at present-day Lake George in New York.
♦ On November 12, 1757, the Attack on German Flatts takes place in present-day Herkimer, New York.
♦ On December 1, 1757, British Major General James Abercromby is promoted to Commander in Chief in North America.
♦ On December 8, 1757, the Battle of Bloody Creek takes place near present-day Carleton Corner, Nova Scotia.

1758:
♦ On February 28, 1758, the Battle of Caragena takes place in Spain.
♦ On March 13, 1758, the Second Battle on Snowshoes takes place near Lake George in present-day New York.
♦ On April 29, 1758, the Battle of Cuddalore takes place off the coast of India.
♦ On June 2, the French capture Fort St. David in India.
♦ On June 8, 1758, the Siege of Louisbourg begins in Nova Scotia.
♦ On July 8, 1758, the Battle of Fort Ticonderoga, aka the Battle of Fort Carillon, takes place at Fort Carillon on Lake Champlain.
♦ On July 26, 1758, the Siege of Louisbourg ends in Nova Scotia.
♦ On August 26-28, 1758, the Battle of Fort Frontenac takes place in present-day Kingston, Ontario.
♦ On September 14, 1758, the Battle of Fort Duquesne takes place at present-day Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.
♦ On October 12, 1758, the Battle of Fort Ligonier takes place in present-day Ligonier, Pennsylvania.
♦ On October 26, 1758, the Treaty of Easton is signed, in which the Ohio Indians promise to stop fighting on the side of the French and, in exchange, the British promise not to settle the Ohio country. The treaty essentially ends the French and Indian War in Pennsylvania.
♦ On November 25, 1758, Fort Duquesne is captured by the British after French forces abandon it after losing their Indian allies following the Treaty of Easton.
♦ In December of 1758, the Siege of Madras begins in India.
♦ In December of 1758, George Washington resigns his commission in the Virginia regiment.

1759:
♦ On January 16-19, 1759, the Invasion of Martinique takes place in the West Indies.
♦ On January 22, 1759, the Invasion of Guadeloupe begins in the West Indies.
♦ On February 17, 1759, the Siege of Madras ends in India.
♦ On March 7, 1759, the final Battle on Snowshoes takes place directly across from Fort Carillon in present-day New York.
♦ On May 1, 1759, the Invasion of Guadeloupe ends after Guadeloupe surrenders to the British.
♦ On July 6-26, 1759, the Battle of Fort Niagra takes place near present-day Youngstown, New York.
♦ On July 24, 1759, the Battle of La Belle-Famille takes place near Fort Niagra in New York.
♦ On July 26-27, 1759, the Battle of Ticonderoga takes place in New York.
♦ On July 31, 1759, the Battle of Beauport takes place near Beauport, Canada.
♦ On August 1, 1759, Battle of Minden takes place in present-day Germany.
♦ On August 12, 1759, Battle of Kundersdorf takes place in present-day Germany.
♦ On August 18-19, 1759, the Battle of Lagos takes place in Portugal.
♦ On September 13, 1759, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, aka the Battle of Quebec City, take places in Quebec City.
♦ On September 18, 1759, the Articles of Capitulation of Quebec are signed.
♦ On October 4, 1759, the St. Francis Raid takes place in Quebec.
♦ In the fall, moderate Cherokee chiefs from Great Tellico, which is located in present-day Tennessee, travel to South Carolina to negotiate with the governor there but are kept as hostages and brought to Fort Prince George in South Carolina.

1760:
♦ On February 16, 1760, Cherokee warriors attack Fort Prince George in South Carolina in an attempt to free the Cherokee hostages. British forces thwart the attack and kill the hostages.
♦ On April 28, 1760, the Battle of Sainte-Foy takes place in Quebec.
♦ On May 16, 1760, the Battle of Neuville takes place on the Saint Lawrence River near Nouvelle, France.
♦ In February of 1760, the Siege of Fort Loudon takes place in present-day Tennessee.
♦ On August 9, 1760, the Siege of Fort Loudon ends in present-day Tennessee.
♦ On August 16-24, 1760, the Battle of the Thousand Islands takes place in on the St. Lawrence River near the border of Canada.
♦ On June 28 – July 8, 1760, the Battle of Restigouche, takes place on the Restigouche River in Quebec.
♦ On September 6, 1760, the Siege of Montreal takes place. The French lose the siege. This marks the end of French rule in North America.
♦ On September 8, 1760, Articles of Capitulation of Montreal are signed in the British military camp near Montreal.
♦ On October 16, 1760, the Battle of Kloster Kamp takes place in present-day Germany.
♦ On October 25, 1760, King George II of Great Britain dies.

1761:
♦ On June 7, 1761, the Invasion of Dominica takes place.
♦ On August, 15, 1761, France and Spain sign the Family Compact, which was a treaty between the Bourbon kings of France and Spain pledging mutual support in the war effort.
♦ On September 23, 1761, the Cherokee sign a peace treaty with the British, which brings the Anglo-Cherokee War (1759-1761) to an end.

1762:
♦ On January 4, 1762, Great Britain declares war on Spain, which marks the beginning of the Anglo-Spanish war.
♦ On January 18, 1762, Spain publishes its treaty with France and declares war on Great Britain.
♦ On May 18, 1762, Portugal allies with Great Britain and declares war on both Spain and France.
♦ On September 15, 1762, the Battle of Signal Hill takes place at St. John’s in Newfoundland.
♦ On January 5, 1762, the Invasion of Martinique begins in the West Indies.
♦ On February 12, 1762, the Invasion of Martinique ends in the West Indies.
♦ On May 5, 1762, Prussia and Russia sign the Treaty of St. Petersburg which ends the fighting between the two countries.
♦ On May 5, 1762, Spain begins its invasion of Portugal.
♦ On June 6, 1762, the Siege of Havana begins in Cuba.
♦ On June 24, 1762, the French capture St. John’s, Newfoundland.
♦ On August 11, 1762, the Siege of Havana ends in Cuba.
♦ On September 18, 1762, the British retake St. John’s, Newfoundland.
♦ On September 24, 1762, the Battle of Manila begins in the Philippines.
♦ On October 6, 1762, the Battle of Manila ends in the Philippines.
♦ On November 24, 1762, Spain’s invasion of Portugal fails.

1763:
♦ On February 10, 1763, the French and Indian War ends with signing of the Treaty of Paris.
♦ On May 7, 1763, Pontiac’s War begins, which is a conflict between Great Britain and a loose confederation of Native-American tribes who were unhappy with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the French and Indian War.

1766:
♦ On July 25, 1766, Pontiac and the Algonkian chiefs meet at Fort Ontario in New York to sign a final peace treaty, which brings Pontiac’s War to an end.

To learn more about the French and Indian War, check out this article on the best books about the French and Indian War.


Advancing to Peace

Leaving their allies to bicker amongst themselves, the Americans became aware of a letter sent during the summer to George Washington in which Shelburne conceded the point of independence. Armed with this knowledge, they re-entered talks with Oswald. With the issue of independence settled, they began hammering out the details which included border issues and discussion of reparations. On the former point, the Americans were able to get the British to agree to the borders established after the French & Indian War rather than those set by the Quebec Act of 1774.

By the end of November, the two sides produced a preliminary treaty based on the following points:

  • Great Britain recognized the Thirteen Colonies to be free, sovereign and independent states.
  • The borders of the United States would be those of 1763 extending west to the Mississippi.
  • The United States would receive fishing rights on the Grand Banks and Gulf of St. Lawrence.
  • All contracted debts were to be paid to creditors on each side.
  • The Congress of the Confederation would recommend that each state legislature provide restitution for property taken from Loyalists.
  • The United States would prevent property from being taken from Loyalists in the future.
  • All prisoners of war were to be released.
  • Both the United States and Great Britain were to have perpetual access to the Mississippi.
  • Territory captured by the United States subsequent to the treaty was to be returned.
  • Ratification of the treaty was to occur within six months of signing. With the British relief of Gibraltar in October, the French ceased to have any interest in aiding the Spanish. As a result, they were willing to accept a separate Anglo-American peace. Reviewing the treaty, they grudgingly accepted it on November 30.

Transcript of Treaty of Paris (1783)

In the Name of the most Holy & undivided Trinity.

It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the Hearts of the most Serene and most Potent Prince George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, Duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, Arch- Treasurer and Prince Elector of the Holy Roman Empire etc.. and of the United States of America, to forget all past Misunderstandings and Differences that have unhappily interrupted the good Correspondence and Friendship which they mutually wish to restore and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory Intercourse between the two countries upon the ground of reciprocal Advantages and mutual Convenience as may promote and secure to both perpetual Peace and Harmony and having for this desirable End already laid the Foundation of Peace & Reconciliation by the Provisional Articles signed at Paris on the 30th of November 1782, by the Commissioners empowered on each Part, which Articles were agreed to be inserted in and constitute the Treaty of Peace proposed to be concluded between the Crown of Great Britain and the said United States, but which Treaty was not to be concluded until Terms of Peace should be agreed upon between Great Britain & France, and his Britannic Majesty should be ready to conclude such Treaty accordingly: and the treaty between Great Britain & France having since been concluded, his Britannic Majesty & the United States of America, in Order to carry into full Effect the Provisional Articles above mentioned, according to the Tenor thereof, have constituted & appointed, that is to say his Britannic Majesty on his Part, David Hartley, Esqr., Member of the Parliament of Great Britain, and the said United States on their Part, - stop point - John Adams, Esqr., late a Commissioner of the United States of America at the Court of Versailles, late Delegate in Congress from the State of Massachusetts, and Chief Justice of the said State, and Minister Plenipotentiary of the said United States to their High Mightinesses the States General of the United Netherlands - stop point - Benjamin Franklin, Esqr., late Delegate in Congress from the State of Pennsylvania, President of the Convention of the said State, and Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States of America at the Court of Versailles John Jay, Esqr., late President of Congress and Chief Justice of the state of New York, and Minister Plenipotentiary from the said United States at the Court of Madrid to be Plenipotentiaries for the concluding and signing the Present Definitive Treaty who after having reciprocally communicated their respective full Powers have agreed upon and confirmed the following Articles.

Article 1st:
His Brittanic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, to be free sovereign and Independent States that he treats with them as such, and for himself his Heirs & Successors, relinquishes all claims to the Government, Propriety, and Territorial Rights of the same and every Part thereof.

Article 2d:
And that all Disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the Boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their Boundaries, viz. from the Northwest Angle of Nova Scotia, viz., that Angle which is formed by a Line drawn due North from the Source of St. Croix River to the Highlands along the said Highlands which divide those Rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the northwesternmost Head of Connecticut River Thence down along the middle of that River to the forty-fifth Degree of North Latitude From thence by a Line due West on said Latitude until it strikes the River Iroquois or Cataraquy Thence along the middle of said River into Lake Ontario through the Middle of said Lake until it strikes the Communication by Water between that Lake & Lake Erie Thence along the middle of said Communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of said Lake until it arrives at the Water Communication between that lake & Lake Huron Thence along the middle of said Water Communication into the Lake Huron, thence through the middle of said Lake to the Water Communication between that Lake and Lake Superior thence through Lake Superior Northward of the Isles Royal & Phelipeaux to the Long Lake Thence through the middle of said Long Lake and the Water Communication between it & the Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods Thence through the said Lake to the most Northwestern Point thereof, and from thence on a due West Course to the river Mississippi Thence by a Line to be drawn along the Middle of the said river Mississippi until it shall intersect the Northernmost Part of the thirty-first Degree of North Latitude, South, by a Line to be drawn due East from the Determination of the Line last mentioned in the Latitude of thirty-one Degrees of the Equator to the middle of the River Apalachicola or Catahouche Thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River Thence straight to the Head of Saint Mary's River, and thence down along the middle of Saint Mary's River to the Atlantic Ocean. East, by a Line to be drawn along the Middle of the river Saint Croix, from its Mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its Source, and from its Source directly North to the aforesaid Highlands, which divide the Rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean from those which fall into the river Saint Lawrence comprehending all Islands within twenty Leagues of any Part of the Shores of the United States, and lying between Lines to be drawn due East from the Points where the aforesaid Boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one Part and East Florida on the other shall, respectively, touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such Islands as now are or heretofore have been within the limits of the said Province of Nova Scotia.

Article 3d:
It is agreed that the People of the United States shall continue to enjoy unmolested the Right to take Fish of every kind on the Grand Bank and on all the other Banks of Newfoundland, also in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and at all other Places in the Sea, where the Inhabitants of both Countries used at any time heretofore to fish. And also that the Inhabitants of the United States shall have Liberty to take Fish of every Kind on such Part of the Coast of Newfoundland as British Fishermen shall use, (but not to dry or cure the same on that Island) And also on the Coasts, Bays & Creeks of all other of his Brittanic Majesty's Dominions in America and that the American Fishermen shall have Liberty to dry and cure Fish in any of the unsettled Bays, Harbors, and Creeks of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled, but so soon as the same or either of them shall be settled, it shall not be lawful for the said Fishermen to dry or cure Fish at such Settlement without a previous Agreement for that purpose with the Inhabitants, Proprietors, or Possessors of the Ground.

Article 4th:
It is agreed that Creditors on either Side shall meet with no lawful Impediment to the Recovery of the full Value in Sterling Money of all bona fide Debts heretofore contracted.

Article 5th:
It is agreed that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to the Legislatures of the respective States to provide for the Restitution of all Estates, Rights, and Properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British Subjects and also of the Estates, Rights, and Properties of Persons resident in Districts in the Possession on his Majesty's Arms and who have not borne Arms against the said United States. And that Persons of any other Description shall have free Liberty to go to any Part or Parts of any of the thirteen United States and therein to remain twelve Months unmolested in their Endeavors to obtain the Restitution of such of their Estates &ndash Rights & Properties as may have been confiscated. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several States a Reconsideration and Revision of all Acts or Laws regarding the Premises, so as to render the said Laws or Acts perfectly consistent not only with Justice and Equity but with that Spirit of Conciliation which on the Return of the Blessings of Peace should universally prevail. And that Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several States that the Estates, Rights, and Properties of such last mentioned Persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any Persons who may be now in Possession the Bona fide Price (where any has been given) which such Persons may have paid on purchasing any of the said Lands, Rights, or Properties since the Confiscation.

And it is agreed that all Persons who have any Interest in confiscated Lands, either by Debts, Marriage Settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no lawful Impediment in the Prosecution of their just Rights.

Article 6th:
That there shall be no future Confiscations made nor any Prosecutions commenced against any Person or Persons for, or by Reason of the Part, which he or they may have taken in the present War, and that no Person shall on that Account suffer any future Loss or Damage, either in his Person, Liberty, or Property and that those who may be in Confinement on such Charges at the Time of the Ratification of the Treaty in America shall be immediately set at Liberty, and the Prosecutions so commenced be discontinued.

Article 7th:
There shall be a firm and perpetual Peace between his Britanic Majesty and the said States, and between the Subjects of the one and the Citizens of the other, wherefore all Hostilities both by Sea and Land shall from henceforth cease: All prisoners on both Sides shall be set at Liberty, and his Britanic Majesty shall with all convenient speed, and without causing any Destruction, or carrying away any Negroes or other Property of the American inhabitants, withdraw all his Armies, Garrisons & Fleets from the said United States, and from every Post, Place and Harbour within the same leaving in all Fortifications, the American Artillery that may be therein: And shall also Order & cause all Archives, Records, Deeds & Papers belonging to any of the said States, or their Citizens, which in the Course of the War may have fallen into the hands of his Officers, to be forthwith restored and delivered to the proper States and Persons to whom they belong.

Article 8th:
The Navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source to the Ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the Subjects of Great Britain and the Citizens of the United States.

Article 9th:
In case it should so happen that any Place or Territory belonging to great Britain or to the United States should have been conquered by the Arms of either from the other before the Arrival of the said Provisional Articles in America, it is agreed that the same shall be restored without Difficulty and without requiring any Compensation.

Article 10th:
The solemn Ratifications of the present Treaty expedited in good & due Form shall be exchanged between the contracting Parties in the Space of Six Months or sooner if possible to be computed from the Day of the Signature of the present Treaty. In witness whereof we the undersigned their Ministers Plenipotentiary have in their Name and in Virtue of our Full Powers, signed with our Hands the present Definitive Treaty, and caused the Seals of our Arms to be affixed thereto.

Done at Paris, this third day of September in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.

D HARTLEY (SEAL)
JOHN ADAMS (SEAL)
B FRANKLIN (SEAL)
JOHN JAY (SEAL)


Second Treaty of Paris - History

East Florida was then bordered by the Apalachicola River, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. The capital of East Florida was St. Augustine. East Florida had good, fertile soil and was excellent for farming. In an attempt to bring settlers to East Florida, the British offered land grants to settlers who would come to farm and also defend the new British territory.

The first governor of East Florida was James Grant. Grant did more to increase the population of East Florida than anyone else. He remained friends with the Seminole Indians and traded goods with them. Grant also encouraged settlers from North and South Carolina, Georgia, and other British colonies to come and start plantations, or large farms.

Many British brought enslaved Africans with them to work on the plantations. The slaves cleared land, built homes, took care of farm animals, and planted and harvested crops. Many plantations were successful with various crops such as citrus fruit, sugar cane, rice, and cotton. Some plantations raised Indigo plants for making dark blue dye.

West Florida

The American Revolution

The British did not rule Florida for long. The colonies north of Florida were tired of Britain's rule and decided to fight for their independence. They began a war known as the American Revolution. During this time, colonists who fought for independence were known as Patriots. Those who sided with Britain were called Loyalists.

Unlike the northern colonies, Florida did not have problems with Britain. In fact, many of the English settlers that lived in East Florida invited Loyalists from South Carolina and Georgia to move to Florida. The majority of these Loyalists settled in St. Augustine.

Most of the war took place far north of Florida, but Florida suffered occasional raids. In 1779, Spain took advantage of Britain's preoccupation with the colonies and invaded West Florida. By 1781, Britain had lost West Florida to Spain. At the end of the American Revolution, Spain regained the rest of Florida.


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