Sovereigh I SwStr - History

Sovereigh I SwStr - History

Sovereign I

(SwStr.: t. 336)

The first Sovereign-a side wheel steamer built in 1855 at Shousetown, Pa.—operated on the Mississippi and its tributaries during the years preceding the Civil War. She was acquired by the Confederacy in 1861 and served as a transport on the same river system.

On 5 June 1862, on the Missssippi near Island No. 37, she was fired upon by Benton and, as Union tug Spitfire closed for action, was abandoned by her crew. However, a 16-year old lad who was loyal to the Union remained on board, removed weights from the steamer's safety valves, wetted down her fires, and signaled Spitfire with a white sheet. A prize crew from the Union tug then took possession of the ship.

Sovereign was condemned by the Illinois prize court and formally purchased by the Navy on 9 January 1863.

Meanwhile, in the summer of 1862, she had been
placed in service as a commissary boat for the Western Flotilla under the command of First Master Thomas Baldwin. She served for the most part off the mouth of the Yazoo River tending combatant ships during operations against Vicksburg.

After the Confederate river fortress fell, she ascended the river to Cairo, Ill., where she was laid UD and used as quarters for workmen in the navy yard. Following the collapse of the Confederacy, Sovereign was sold at public auction there on 29 November 1865 to S. Homer.


What did your Sovereign ancestors do for a living?

In 1940, Laborer and Housekeeper were the top reported jobs for men and women in the US named Sovereign. 32% of Sovereign men worked as a Laborer .

*We display top occupations by gender to maintain their historical accuracy during times when men and women often performed different jobs.

Top Male Occupations in 1940

Top Female Occupations in 1940


A History of the Half-Sovereign

The Half-Sovereign is an English and British coin, which was the equivalent to half a pound sterling, ten shillings, or 120 old pence. Used often in jewellery &ndash the Half-Sovereign ring &ndash it has been seen as a commemorative coin due to its limited volume, but it actually has its own intrinsic value and rich history.

1489-1544: The gold Sovereign was first introduced back in 1489 under the reign of Henry VII, but the Half-Sovereign waited 55 years before making its debut in 1544 under Henry VIII. To this day, their rarity is due to their limited minting and the controlled release of those coins that are struck.

The Half-Sovereign has ducked in and out of history, staging at least two major disappearances and two triumphant comebacks.

1604: The half Sovereign was consistently struck for most monarchs until the early part of the reign of James I when both the Sovereign and Half-Sovereign were discontinued from 1604. The reign of Charles II, the &lsquomerry monarch&rsquo, saw the Half-Sovereign apparently superseded by the half-guinea, worth 10 shillings and sixpence (52.5p) against the 10-shilling value of the Half-Sovereign.

1803 to 1815: The convulsions of the Napoleonic Wars and their aftermath opened the door for a return of both the Sovereign and Half-Sovereign. A &lsquobullion committee&rsquo chaired by future Prime Minister Sir Robert Peel organised a major currency reform.

As The Royal Mint&rsquos own history records:

&ldquoAt first it was intended to re-introduce the 21-shilling guinea but it was found that &lsquoa very general wish prevails among the public in favour of a coinage of gold pieces of the value of 20 Shillings and 10 Shillings&hellip&rsquo Hence a new 20-shilling coin was born and given the old name of Sovereign.&rdquo

1893: On the reverse of the new Sovereign was the design featuring St George slaying the dragon, by a young Italian engraver, Benedetto Pistrucci. The Half-Sovereign, however, was to carry a Royal coat of arms until 1893, when it too was decorated by Pestrucci&rsquos design, which remains on Half-Sovereigns to this day.

1915: In the early 20th century, the coin disappeared from circulation once again when Britain&rsquos need for bullion with which to fight the First World War brought production of the coin at The Royal Mint to a halt. The Sovereign also went out of production two years later, but the fates of the larger and smaller coin diverged markedly.

1925-1974:
Some Sovereigns were struck and the coin went into temporary disuse until 1957, after which it returned to production, interrupted only by a six-year hiatus from 1968 to 1974.

1982: By contrast, the Half-Sovereign was not to reappear until the early 80s. Since then, it has been a popular gift at christenings and other special occasions and has been in demand for use in the manufacture of jewellery, as in the Half-Sovereign ring.

2015: The Half-Sovereign 2015 Brilliant Uncirculated is struck in 22 carat gold to the same precise Royal Mint standard as every Sovereign since 1817. It boasts Benedetto Pistrucci&rsquos classic representation of St George on the reverse, and every coin comes with a numbered Certificate of Authenticity and an accompanying booklet.

Despite its timeless appeal to collectors, the Half-Sovereign&rsquos value is emerging as having a store of worth in its own right. With the inclusion of the Half-Sovereign on The Royal Mint Bullion platform, you can go online to buy and sell the Half-Sovereign round the clock, 365 days a year in complete confidence.

As with other legal-tender gold bullion coins, the Half-Sovereign is free of both VAT and of Capital Gains Tax on any profit made from their sale.

Few would want the Half-Sovereign fully to lose that elusive, rare quality that is so much part of its attraction. But obtaining this most enticing of British gold bullion coins has just become a little easier.


Singapore

Singapore is the only island city-state in the world and is home to some of the richest people in the world.

This city-state has a varied history. It was ruled by the British (1826-1942, 1945-1963) at certain points, and has also been under the rule of Japan and Malaysia. The country became a sovereign state in 1965 when it pulled away from Malaysia amidst political and ethnic tensions. It is now an independent republic and part of the United Nations with an economy based largely on manufacturing electronics, biochemical science solutions, and other chemicals, as well as transport engineering and logistics. Singapore also has a thriving financial services industry, which forms the second largest part of its economy.

Piazza San Pietro, Vatican City. Image credit: Banauke/Shutterstock


Sovereign Ratings History

As of Sept. 30, 2019, S&P Global Ratings rates 134 sovereign governments and has transfer and convertibility (T&C) assessments for each country with a rated sovereign.

Rating Trends

From Sept. 1, to Sept. 30, 2019, S&P Global Ratings took the following rating actions:

  • Jamaica: Foreign and local currency long-term ratings raised to 'B+/Stable' from 'B/Positive' the 'B' short-term ratings were affirmed.
  • Spain: Foreign and local currency long- and short-term ratings raised to 'A/Stable/A-1' from 'A-/Positive/A-2'.
  • Ukraine: Foreign and local currency long-term ratings raised to 'B/Stable' from 'B-/Stable' the 'B' short-term ratings were affirmed.

Outlook revisions/CreditWatch actions:

  • Portugal: Outlook on 'BBB' foreign and local currency long-term ratings revised to positive from stable.

Distribution Of Ratings And Changes In 2019 As Of Sept. 30

Table 1

Sovereign Foreign Currency Ratings And Outlooks As Of Sept. 30, 2019
Rating Stable outlook Positive outlook or CreditWatch Negative outlook or CreditWatch
AAA
Australia
Canada
Denmark
Germany
Liechtenstein
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Norway
Singapore
Sweden
Switzerland
AA+
Austria
Finland
Hong Kong
U.S.
AA
Abu Dhabi New Zealand United Kingdom
Belgium
France
Korea
Kuwait
AA-
Czech Republic Guernsey
Estonia Jersey
Israel
Slovenia
Taiwan
Qatar
A+
Chile Bermuda
China Japan
Ireland
Slovakia
A
Iceland
Latvia
Lithuania
Ras Al Khaimah
Spain
A-
Botswana Malta
Malaysia
Poland
Saudi Arabia
BBB+
Aruba Mexico
Curacao
Panama
Peru
Philippines
Sharjah
Thailand
Turks and Caicos Islands
BBB
Hungary Andorra Italy
Indonesia Portugal
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
BBB-
Colombia Bulgaria Morocco
Croatia
Cyprus
India
Kazakhstan
Montserrat
Romania
Russia
BB+
Azerbaijan
Bahamas
BB
Paraguay Serbia Oman
South Africa
Vietnam
BB-
Bangladesh Georgia
Bolivia
Brazil
Dominican Republic
Fiji
Guatemala
Honduras
Macedonia
Uzbekistan
B+
Albania Greece Costa Rica
Bahrain Senegal
Benin
Cook Islands
Jamaica
Jordan
Kenya
Montenegro
Rwanda
Turkey
B
Belarus Bosnia & Herzegovina Cameroon
Burkina Faso
Cape Verde
Egypt
Ethiopia
Ghana
Mongolia
Nigeria
Papua New Guinea
Sri Lanka
Suriname
Togo
Uganda
Ukraine
B-
Belize Angola
Congo-Brazzaville Lebanon
Ecuador Nicaragua
El Salvador
Iraq
Pakistan
Tajikistan
CCC+
Zambia Congo (DRC)
CCC
CCC-
Argentina
CC
SD/D*
Barbados
Mozambique
Venezuela
*'SD' and 'D' ratings have no outlooks.

Table 2

Sovereign Foreign Currency Rating Actions
Number of
Month/Year Upgrades* Downgrades Upgrades* Downgrades Issuers placed on SD or D§
Sep-19 3 0 Jamaica, Spain, Ukraine
Aug-19 2 2 Fiji, Rwanda Argentina, Zambia Argentina (SD, Aug. 29 Out of SD, Aug. 30)
Jul-19 0 1 Trinidad and Tobago
Jun-19 1 0 Slovenia
May-19 1 0 Indonesia
Apr-19 3 0 Panama, Philippines, Vietnam
Mar-19 2 0 Croatia, Portugal
Feb-19 1 2 Hungary Curacao, Pakistan
Jan-19 0 0
Dec-18 1 2 El Salvador Costa Rica, Sri Lanka
Nov-18 1 2 Mongolia Argentina, Nicaragua
Oct-18 1 0 Poland
Sep-18 4 0 Congo-Brazzaville, Cyprus, Ghana, Latvia
Aug-18 1 2 Israel Turkey, Zambia
Jul-18 0 1 Nicaragua
Jun-18 1 0 Greece Barbados (SD, Jun. 06)
May-18 1 2 Egypt Bolivia, Turkey
Apr-18 0 1 Papua New Guinea
Mar-18 3 0 Croatia, Lithuania, Spain
Feb-18 1 0 Russia
Jan-18 1 1 Greece Brazil
Dec-17 2 2 Bulgaria, Serbia Bahrain, Colombia
Nov-17 0 2 Oman, South Africa Venezuela (SD, Nov. 13)
Oct-17 3 2 Argentina, Belarus, Italy Guatemala, Jordan El Salvador (SD, Oct. 2 Out of SD, Oct. 3)
Sep-17 1 2 Portugal China, Hong Kong Congo-Brazzaville (Out of SD, Sept. 5)
Aug-17 0 2 Angola, Congo (Democratic Republic of) Congo-Brazzaville (SD, Aug. 1)
Jul-17 2 3 Andorra, Honduras Chile, Congo-Brazzaville (2), Venezuela
Jun-17 1 2 Slovenia Ecuador, Qatar
May-17 2 1 Burkina Faso, Indonesia Oman El Salvador (Out of SD, May 5)
Apr-17 1 3 Argentina South Africa, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago El Salvador (SD, April 20)
Mar-17 2 1 Cyprus, Iceland Barbados Belize (SD, March 17 Out of SD, March 23)
Feb-17 0 0
Jan-17 1 1 Iceland Sharjah (2) Mozambique (SD, Jan. 18)
Dec-16 0 3 Bahamas,Bahrain, El Salvador
Nov-16 0 2 Mozambique, Belize (2)
Oct-16 2 1 Malta, Pakistan El Salvador
Sep-16 2 3 Cyprus, Hungary Barbados, Nigeria, Rwanda
Aug-16 1 1 Korea Mongolia Congo-Brazzaville (SD, Aug. 2 Out of SD, Aug. 9)
Jul-16 0 3 Guernsey, Jersey, Turkey
Jun-16 1 1 Slovenia United Kingdom (2)
May-16 0 1 Mozambique Argentina (Out of SD, May 6)
Apr-16 0 2 Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago Mozambique (SD, April 1 Out of SD, April 15)
Mar-16 0 2 Congo-Brazzaville, Mozambique
Feb-16 1 9 Albania Angola, Bahrain (2), Brazil, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Jersey, Kazakhstan, Oman (2), Saudi Arabia (2)
Jan-16 2 2 Iceland,Greece Azerbaijan, Gabon
Dec-15 0 0
Nov-15 1 2 Netherlands Mongolia, Oman
Oct-15 1 1 Spain Saudi Arabia Ukraine (Out of SD, Oct. 19)
Sep-15 3 2 Cyprus, Korea, Portugal Brazil, Japan Ukraine (SD, Sept. 25)
Aug-15 0 2 Bahamas, Ecuador
Jul-15 4 2 Greece (2), Honduras, Iceland, Slovakia Mozambique, Zambia
Jun-15 3 2 Uruguay, Jamaica, Ireland Greece (2)
May-15 2 0 Fiji, Dominican Republic
Apr-15 0 3 Bermuda, Greece, Ukraine
Mar-15 2 2 Hungary, Rwanda Andorra (2), Nigeria
Feb-15 0 8 Angola, Bahrain, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Greece, Kazakhstan, Oman, Venzuela
Jan-15 0 1 Russia
Dec-14 1 6 Ireland Burkina Faso, Italy, Bulgaria, Barbados (2), Ukraine, El Salvador
Nov-14 0 1 Montenegro
Oct-14 1 3 Cyprus Andorra, Finland, Ghana
Sep-14 1 1 Greece Venezuela
Aug-14 1 0 Ecuador
Jul-14 0 0 Argentina (SD, July 30)
Jun-14 2 3 Ireland, Paraguay South Africa, Bulgaria, Argentina (2)
May-14 5 0 Bolivia, Latvia, Philippines, Romania, Spain
Apr-14 2 2 Cyprus, Lithuania (2) Mongolia, Russia
Mar-14 0 1 Brazil
Feb-14 0 3 Isle of Man, Mozambique, Ukraine
Jan-14 0 3 Croatia, Uganda, Ukraine
Dec-13 1 3 Mexico Albania, Cape Verde, Venezuela
Nov-13 2 5 Egypt, Cyprus Ukraine, Lebanon, France, Barbados (2), Netherlands
Oct-13 0 0
Sep-13 1 1 Jamaica Argentina
Aug-13 1 2 Peru Honduras, Tunisia (2)
Jul-13 0 1 Italy Cyprus (Out of SD, July 3)
Jun-13 1 2 Latvia Aruba, Venezuela Cyprus(SD, June 28)
May-13 1 3 Philippines Egypt, Jordan, Macedonia
Apr-13 1 0 Colombia
Mar-13 1 1 Turkey Cyprus Belize (Out of SD, March 20), Grenada (SD, March 12), Jamaica (Out of SD, March 6)
Feb-13 0 2 Slovenia, Tunisia Jamaica (SD, Feb. 12)
Jan-13 0 1 Malta
Dec-12 1 5 Chile Andorra, Croatia, Cyprus (2), Egypt, Ukraine Greece (SD, Dec. 5, Out of SD, Dec. 18)
Nov-12 2 2 Latvia, Nigeria Argentina, Hungary
Oct-12 0 3 Cyprus (3), South Africa, Spain (2) Grenada (SD, Oct. 8, Out of SD, Oct. 16)
Sep-12 1 0 Korea
Aug-12 0 3 Cyprus, Serbia, Slovenia Belize (SD, Aug. 21)
Jul-12 2 1 Panama, Philippines Barbados
Jun-12 2 1 Ecuador, Honduras Montenegro
May-12 2 1 Bolivia, Latvia Tunisia (2) Greece(Out of SD, Feb. 27)
Apr-12 1 1 Uruguay Spain (2)
Mar-12 0 0
Feb-12 0 2 Belize, Egypt Greece (SD, Feb. 27)
Jan-12 0 9 Austria, Cyprus (2), France, Italy (2), Malta, Portugal (2), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (2)
Dec-11 1 3 Azerbaijan Bermuda, Cook Islands, Hungary
Nov-11 3 5 Brazil, Georgia, Kazakhstan Belgium, Bosnia, Egypt, Guernsey, Isle of Man
Oct-11 0 6 Bahamas, Cambodia, Cyprus, Egypt, Slovenia, Spain
Sep-11 1 3 Israel Belarus, Italy, New Zealand
Aug-11 6 3 Czech Republic (2), Estonia (2), Fiji, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname Belize, United States, Venezuela
Jul-11 3 2 Angola, Kuwait, Uruguay Cyprus, Greece (2)
Jun-11 1 1 Dominican Republic Greece (3)
May-11 1 1 Bolivia Greece (2)
Apr-11 1 1 Indonesia Ireland
Mar-11 2 7 Colombia, Serbia Bahrain (2), Belarus, Cyprus, Greece (2), Libya (4), Portugal (3), Tunisia
Feb-11 0 4 Bahrain, Egypt, Ireland, Libya
Jan-11 0 2 El Salvador, Japan
Dec-10 4 3 China, Hong Kong, Kazakhstan, Latvia Cook Islands, Croatia, Vietnam
Nov-10 2 2 Kenya, Philippines Cyprus, Ireland
Oct-10 0 1 Barbados
Sep-10 3 0 Argentina, Sri Lanka, Uruguay
Aug-10 2 2 Ecuador, Paraguay Ghana, Ireland
Jul-10 2 0 Qatar, Ukraine
Jun-10 1 1 Estonia Andorra
May-10 3 0 Bolivia, Panama, Ukraine
Apr-10 1 3 Georgia Greece (3), Portugal (2), Spain
Mar-10 3 1 Indonesia, Morocco, Ukraine Montenegro
Feb-10 1 1 Turkey Botswana Jamaica (Out of SD, Feb.24)
Jan-10 0 0 Jamaica (SD, Jan. 14)
Dec-09 1 3 Lebanon Bahamas, Greece, Mexico
Nov-09 0 1 Jamaica
Oct-09 0 0
Sep-09 0 1 Honduras
Aug-09 1 4 Pakistan Estonia, Jamaica, Latvia, Nigeria
Jul-09 0 0
Jun-09 0 2 Barbados, Ireland Ecuador (Out of SD, June 15)
May-09 0 2 Andorra, El Salvador
Apr-09 0 3 Fiji, Macedonia, Thailand
Mar-09 0 5 Hungary, Ireland, Jamaica, Lithuania, Madagascar
Feb-09 0 2 Latvia, Ukraine (2)
Jan-09 0 3 Greece, Portugal, Spain
Dec-08 1 3 Pakistan Dominican Republic, Russia, Sri Lanka Ecuador (SD, Dec. 15)
Nov-08 1 5 Slovakia Ecuador (3), Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Pakistan
Oct-08 0 8 Argentina, Bulgaria, Iceland (2), Latvia, Lithuania, Pakistan (2), Romania, Ukraine
Sep-08 0 1 Iceland
Aug-08 2 3 Lebanon, Trinidad & Tobago Andorra, Argentina, Georgia Seychelles (SD, Aug. 7)
Jul-08 4 0 China, Hong Kong, Peru, Uruguay
Jun-08 0 1 Ukraine
May-08 0 1 Pakistan
Apr-08 2 1 Brazil, Cyprus Iceland
Mar-08 0 0
Feb-08 1 1 Panama Kenya
Jan-08 0 2 Lebanon, Lithuania
Dec-07 4 0 Chile, Cook Islands, Mongolia, Mozambique
Nov-07 3 0 Ecuador, Israel, Suriname
Oct-07 2 1 Czech Republic, Mexico Kazakhstan
Sep-07 2 0 Dominican Republic, Papua New Guinea
Aug-07 1 0 Grenada
Jul-07 2 0 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia
Jun-07 1 0 Paraguay
May-07 1 1 Brazil Latvia
Apr-07 1 1 Japan Grenada
Mar-07 4 1 Colombia, Montenegro, Poland, Qatar Fiji
Feb-07 1 0 Cameroon Belize (Out of SD, Feb. 20)
Jan-07 2 1 India, Oman Ecuador
Dec-06 2 1 Mongolia, Suriname Iceland Belize (SD, Dec. 7)
Nov-06 2 1 Kazakhstan, Peru Fiji
Oct-06 2 1 Argentina, Bulgaria Italy
Sep-06 4 1 Russia, Oman, Uruguay, Vietnam Benin
Aug-06 0 1 Belize
Jul-06 4 0 Guatemala, Indonesia, China, Hong Kong
Jun-06 0 1 Hungary
May-06 2 0 Cameroon (2), Slovenia
Apr-06 2 0 Bahrain, Saudi Arabia
Mar-06 1 0 Argentina
Feb-06 2 0 Brazil, Venezuela
Jan-06 0 0
Dec-05 3 0 Russia, Slovakia, Lithuania
Nov-05 0 0 Grenada (Out of SD, Nov. 18)
Oct-05 1 0 Bulgaria
Sep-05 1 0 Romania
Aug-05 4 0 Venezuela, South Africa, Morocco, Macedonia
Jul-05 5 0 China, Korea, Serbia, Hong Kong, Trinidad and Tobago
Jun-05 0 3 Belize, Ecuador, Portugal Dominican Republic (Out of SD, June 29)
May-05 1 0 Ukraine
Apr-05 0 1 Belize
Mar-05 0 0 Venezuela (Out of SD, March 3)
Feb-05 2 0 Iceland, India Dominican Republic (SD, Feb. 1)
Jan-05 3 1 Russia, Ecuador, Mexico Philippines Venezuela (SD, Jan. 18)
Dec-04 4 1 Slovakia, Croatia, Indonesia, Spain Cameroon (3) Grenada (SD, Dec. 30)
Nov-04 3 1 Estonia, Oman, Pakistan Greece
Oct-04 1 1 Cook Islands Grenada (2)
Sep-04 2 1 Brazil, Romania Grenada
Aug-04 4 2 Venezuela, Thailand, Andorra, Turkey Barbados, Belize (2)
Jul-04 3 1 Uruguay, Ukraine, Latvia Italy
Jun-04 3 0 Trinidad & Tobago, Bulgaria, Peru Paraguay (Out of SD, July 26)
May-04 2 0 Slovenia, Kazakhstan
Apr-04 0 0
Mar-04 1 0 Slovakia
Feb-04 3 1 Sweden, Lithuania, China Dominican Republic (2)
Jan-04 2 0 Chile, Russia
Dec-03 0 1 Dominican Republic (2)
Nov-03 0 0
Oct-03 4 2 Indonesia, Turkey, Thailand, Malaysia Dominican Republic (2), Bolivia
Sep-03 1 0 Romania
Aug-03 1 0 Cook Islands
Jul-03 4 1 Jordan, Qatar (2), Turkey, Venezuela Jamaica
Jun-03 1 1 Greece Dominican Republic
May-03 4 2 Bulgaria, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, South Africa Guatemala, Uruguay (SD)
Apr-03 1 2 Trinidad & Tobago Philippines, Uruguay (3)
Mar-03 1 0 Slovenia
Feb-03 3 2 Australia, Lithuania, Romania Bolivia, Uruguay Paraguay (SD, Feb. 13)
*Excluding changes from 'SD', which are not counted as upgrades. §This column shows movements to/from 'SD' or 'D' during the month. SD--Selective default. D--Default.

Table 3

Sovereign Foreign Currency Rating Outlooks (Or CreditWatch) At Month-End
Month/Year No. of positive outlooks or CreditWatch No. of negative outlooks or CreditWatch Positive outlook or positive CreditWatch Negative outlook or negative CreditWatch
Sep-19 13 13 Andorra, Bermuda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Congo (DRC), Georgia, Greece, Japan, Malta, New Zealand, Portugal, Senegal, Serbia Angola, Argentina, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, United Kingdom
Aug-19 14 13 Andorra, Bermuda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Congo (DRC), Georgia, Greece, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, New Zealand, Senegal, Serbia, Spain Angola, Argentina, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, United Kingdom
Jul-19 14 14 Andorra, Bermuda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, New Zealand, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Spain Angola, Aruba, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, United Kingdom, Zambia
Jun-19 13 15 Bermuda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, New Zealand, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Spain Angola, Aruba, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Zambia
May-19 14 15 Bermuda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, New Zealand, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain Angola, Aruba, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Zambia
Apr-19 14 15 Bermuda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, New Zealand, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain Angola, Aruba, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Zambia
Mar-19 15 13 Bermuda, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, New Zealand, Panama, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain Angola, Aruba, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Lebanon, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Zambia
Feb-19 16 11 Bermuda, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, New Zealand, Panama, Philippines, Portugal, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain Angola, Aruba, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Morocco, Nicaragua, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Zambia
Jan-19 17 10 Bermuda, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, New Zealand, Panama, Philippines, Portugal, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain Aruba, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Morocco, Nicaragua, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom
Dec-18 16 10 Bermuda, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, Panama, Philippines, Portugal, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain Aruba, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Morocco, Nicaragua, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom
Nov-18 16 11 Bermuda, Bulgaria, Croatia, El Salvador, Greece, Hungary, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, Panama, Philippines, Portugal, Rwanda, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain Aruba, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Morocco, Nicaragua, Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom
Oct-18 16 13 Bermuda, Bulgaria, Croatia, El Salvador, Greece, Hungary, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, Panama, Philippines, Portugal, Rwanda, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain Argentina, Aruba, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Italy, Jersey, Morocco, Nicaragua, Qatar, Ras Al Khaimah, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom
Sep-18 17 11 Bermuda, Bulgaria, Croatia, El Salvador, Greece, Hungary, Jamaica, Japan, Malta, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Rwanda, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain Argentina, Aruba, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Jersey, Nicaragua, Qatar, Ras Al Khaimah, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom
Aug-18 17 12 Bermuda, Bulgaria, Cyprus, El Salvador, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Japan, Latvia, Malta, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Rwanda, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain Argentina, Aruba, Australia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Jersey, Nicaragua, Qatar, Ras Al Khaimah, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom
Jul-18 17 11 Bermuda, Bulgaria, Cyprus, El Salvador, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Malta, Panama, Philippines, Poland, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain Aruba, Australia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Jersey, Nicaragua, Qatar, Ras Al Khaimah, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom
Jun-18 15 10 Bermuda, Bulgaria, Cyprus, El Salvador, Ghana, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Malta, Philippines, Poland, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain Aruba, Australia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Jersey, Nicaragua, Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom
May-18 14 9 Bermuda, Cyprus, El Salvador, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Malta, Philippines, Poland, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Australia, Barbados, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Jersey, Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom
Apr-18 15 11 Bermuda, Cyprus, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Malta, Philippines, Poland, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Australia, Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Jersey, Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom
Mar-18 11 12 Cyprus, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Latvia, Malta, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Australia, Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Guernsey, Jersey, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom
Feb-18 13 11 Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Australia, Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Jersey, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom
Jan-18 14 11 Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Russia, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Australia, Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guernsey, Jersey, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom
Dec-17 14 11 Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, El Salvador, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Russia, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Australia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom
Nov-17 15 13 Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom
Oct-17 14 17 Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Sep-17 13 22 Bulgaria, Cyprus, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Latvia,Lithuania,Malta, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Jordan, Montenegro, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Aug-17 8 25 Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Jul-17 6 29 Bulgaria, Greece, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Congo-Brazzaville, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Jun-17 6 30 Bulgaria, Honduras, Russia, Serbia, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Barbados, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
May-17 6 29 Aruba, Honduras, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Apr-17 8 29 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Honduras, Indonesia, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
Mar-17 8 31 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Honduras, Indonesia, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Oman, Papua New Guinea,Qatar, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
Feb-17 7 30 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Honduras, Indonesia, Serbia, Slovenia Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Oman, Papua New Guinea, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
Jan-17 7 30 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Honduras, Indonesia, Serbia, Slovenia Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Oman, Papua New Guinea, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
Dec-16 7 30 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Honduras, Indonesia, Serbia, Slovenia Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brazil, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Mozambique, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Sharjah, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
Nov-16 5 33 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Honduras, Indonesia Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brazil, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Mozambique, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Sharjah, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
Oct-16 5 33 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Honduras, Indonesia Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, Croatia, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Sharjah, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
Sep-16 7 34 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Honduras, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, Cape Verde, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, Croatia, Egypt, France, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Mexico, Montenegro, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Sharjah, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
Aug-16 7 39 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Honduras, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan Angola, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, Cape Verde, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, Croatia, Egypt, Finland, France, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mexico, Montenegro, Mozambique, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Russia, Rwanda, Sharjah, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
Jul-16 7 36 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Honduras, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan Australia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, Cape Verde, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, Croatia, Egypt, Finland, France,Hong Kong, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Montenegro, Mozambique, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Russia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
Jun-16 6 36 Aruba, Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, Cape Verde, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, Croatia, Egypt, Finland, France, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Montenegro, Mozambique, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Russia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia
May-16 7 35 Burkina Faso, Cyprus, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan, Paraguay, Slovenia Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, Cape Verde, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, Croatia, Egypt, Finland, France, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Montenegro, Mozambique, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Russia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Apr-16 6 33 Cyprus, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan, Paraguay, Slovenia Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Brazil, Cape Verde, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, Croatia, Finland, France, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Russia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Mar-16 6 30 Cyprus, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan, Paraguay, Slovenia Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, China, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Costa Rica, Croatia, Finland, France, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mozambique, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Russia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Feb-16 6 24 Cyprus, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan, Paraguay, Slovenia Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Congo (DRC), Croatia, Finland, France, Guernsey, Jersey, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mozambique, Papa New Guinea, Russia, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Jan-16 7 23 Albania, Cyprus, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan, Paraguay, Slovenia Andorra, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Brazil, Croatia, Finland, France, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mozambique, Oman, Papa New Guinea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Dec-15 8 25 Albania, Cyprus, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Slovenia Andorra, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Brazil, Croatia, Finland, France, Gabon, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mozambique, Oman, Papa New Guinea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, South Africa, Turkey, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Nov-15 8 23 Albania, Cyprus, Indonesia, Malta, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Slovenia Andorra, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Brazil, Croatia, Finland, France, Gabon, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mozambique, Oman, Papa New Guinea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Oct-15 11 24 Albania, Belize, Cyprus, Egypt, Indonesia, Malta, Netherlands, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Slovenia Andorra, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Brazil, Croatia, Finland, France, Gabon, Guernsey, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lebanon, Mongolia, Mozambique, Papa New Guinea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Sep-15 11 21 Albania, Belize, Cyprus, Egypt, Indonesia, Malta, Netherlands, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Slovenia Andorra, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Brazil, Croatia, Finland, France, Gabon, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Mozambique, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Aug-15 13 21 Albania, Belize, Cyprus, Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malta, Netherlands, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia Andorra , Angola, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain , Barbados, Brazil, Croatia, France, Gabon, Japan, Kazakhstan , Mongolia, Mozambique, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Jul-15 13 20 Albania, Belize, Cyprus, Egypt, Indonesia, Korea, Malta, Netherlands, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia Andorra, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Brazil, Croatia, France, Gabon, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Mozambique, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Jun-15 14 18 Albania, Belize, Cyprus, Egypt, Iceland, Indonesia, Korea, Netherlands, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia Andorra, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, France, Greece, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
May-15 13 17 Albania, Belize, Cyprus, Egypt, Iceland, Indonesia, Jamaica, Korea, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia Andorra, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, France, Greece, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Zambia
Apr-15 10 17 Albania, Belize, Cyprus, Fiji, Iceland, Jamaica, Korea, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia Andorra, Azerbaijan, Bahamas The (Commonwealth of the), Bahrain, Barbados, France, Greece, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Zambia
Mar-15 10 17 Albania, Belize, Cyprus, Fiji, Iceland, Jamaica, Korea, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia Andorra, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Bermuda, France, Greece, Japan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Zambia
Feb-15 9 17 Albania, Belize, Fiji, Iceland, Jamaica, Korea, Poland, Rwanda, Slovakia Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Bermuda, France, Greece, Japan, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Zambia
Jan-15 8 17 Albania, Belize, Fiji, Iceland, Jamaica, Korea, Rwanda, Slovakia Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Bermuda, France, Greece, Japan, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, Oman, Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Zambia
Dec-14 8 15 Albania, Belize, Fiji, Iceland, Jamaica, Korea, Rwanda, Slovakia Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Bermuda, France, Japan, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, Oman, Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Zambia
Nov-14 10 16 Albania, Belize, Fiji, Iceland, Ireland, Jamaica, Korea, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Burkina Faso, El Salvador, France, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey, Venezuela, Zambia
Oct-14 9 17 Albania, Fiji, Iceland, Ireland, Jamaica, Korea, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Burkina Faso, El Salvador, France, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, Nigeria, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey, Venezuela, Zambia
Sep-14 9 20 Cyprus, Fiji, Iceland, Ireland, Jamaica, Korea, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, El Salvador, Finland, Ghana, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, Nigeria, Ras Al Khaimah, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey, Venezuela, Zambia
Aug-14 6 21 Cyprus, Fiji, Iceland, Ireland, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, El Salvador, Finland, Ghana, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, Nigeria, Ras Al Khaimah, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey, Zambia
Jul-14 6 21 Cyprus, Ecuador, Fiji, Iceland, Ireland, Saudi Arabia Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, El Salvador, Finland, Ghana, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, Nigeria, Ras Al Khaimah, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey, Zambia
Jun-14 5 23 Cyprus, Ecuador, Fiji, Ireland, Saudi Arabia Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, El Salvador, Finland, Ghana, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Montenegro, Nigeria, Ras Al Khaimah, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Zambia
May-14 5 25 Cyprus, Ecuador, Fiji, Ireland, Saudi Arabia Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Bulgaria, El Salvador, Finland, Ghana, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Montenegro, Mozambique, Nigeria, Ras Al Khaimah, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Apr-14 7 26 Cyprus, Ecuador, Fiji, Ireland, Latvia, Romania, Saudi Arabia Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Bulgaria, El Salvador, Finland, Ghana, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Portugal, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Mar-14 7 28 Ecuador, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Bulgaria, El Salvador, Ghana, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Portugal, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Feb-14 7 28 Ecuador, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Albania, Andorra, Argentina Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Bulgaria, El Salvador, Ghana, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, Serbia, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Jan-14 7 28 Ecuador, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil, Bulgaria, El Salvador, Ghana, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, Serbia, South Africa, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Dec-13 7 30 Ecuador, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil, Bulgaria Croatia, El Salvador, Ghana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, Serbia, South Africa, Uganda, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Nov-13 7 30 Ecuador, Ireland, Lithuania, Mexico, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil, Cape Verde, Croatia, El Salvador, Hungary, Iceland, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Portugal, Serbia, South Africa, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Oct-13 6 33 Ecuador, Ireland, Lithuania, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil, Cape Verde, Croatia, El Salvador, France, Hungary, Iceland, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Zambia
Sep-13 6 32 Belarus, Ecuador, Ireland, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil, Cape Verde, Croatia, El Salvador, France, Hungary, Iceland, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Aug-13 6 33 Belarus, Ecuador, Ireland, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil, Cape Verde, Croatia, El Salvador, France, Gabon, Hungary, Iceland, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Jul-13 6 32 Belarus, Ireland, Mexico, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil, Cape Verde, El Salvador, France, Gabon, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Portugal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela
Jun-13 5 30 Belarus, Mexico, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Andorra, Argentina, Bahamas, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Brazil, Cape Verde, El Salvador, France, Gabon, Honduras, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela
May-13 6 31 Belarus, Latvia, Mexico, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Suriname Andorra, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Curacao, El Salvador, France, Gabon, Honduras, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela
Apr-13 7 32 Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Mexico, Peru, Philippines, Suriname Andorra, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Curacao, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Gabon, Honduras, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela
Mar-13 6 31 Colombia, Indonesia, Latvia, Mexico, Peru, Philippines Andorra, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Curacao, Cyprus, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Gabon, Honduras, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Netherlands, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States
Feb-13 5 31 Colombia, Indonesia, Latvia, Peru, Philippines Andorra, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Belgium, Benin, Curacao, Cyprus, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Gabon, Grenada, Honduras, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Netherlands, Portugal, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States
Jan-13 5 32 Colombia, Indonesia, Latvia, Peru, Philippines Andorra, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Belgium, Benin, Curacao, Cyprus, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Gabon, Grenada, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Netherlands, Portugal, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States
Dec-12 5 37 Colombia, Indonesia, Latvia, Peru, Philippines Andorra, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Bahrain, Belgium, Benin, Curacao, Cyprus, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Gabon, Grenada, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Morocco, Netherlands, Portugal, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States
Nov-12 5 35 Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Latvia, Peru Andorra, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Bahrain, Belgium, Croatia, Curacao, Cyprus, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Greece, Grenada, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Morocco, Netherlands, Portugal, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United States
Oct-12 5 35 Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Nigeria, Peru Andorra, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Bahrain, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Greece, Grenada, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Morocco, Netherlands, Portugal, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United States
Sep-12 7 35 Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Peru, Rwanda Andorra, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Bahrain, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Gabon, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United States
Aug-12 7 34 Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Peru, Rwanda Andorra, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bahrain, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, Senegal, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United States
Jul-12 5 33 Chile, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Rwanda Andorra, Argentina, Austria, Bahrain, Belgium, Belize, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United States
Jun-12 7 35 Chile, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pananma, Philippines, Rwanda Andorra, Argentina, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United States
May-12 9 36 Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pananma, Philippines, Rwanda Andorra, Argentina, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United States, Vietnam
Apr-12 12 36 Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pananma, Philippines, Rwanda, Turkey Andorra, Argentina, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Ukraine, United States, Vietnam
Mar-12 12 35 Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pananma, Philippines, Rwanda, Turkey Andorra, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Guatemala, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Ukraine, United States, Vietnam
Feb-12 12 34 Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pananma, Philippines, Rwanda, Turkey Andorra, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Guatemala, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, United States, Vietnam
Jan-12 13 35 Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pananma, Philippines, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Turkey Andorra, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, United States, Vietnam
Dec-11 13 36 Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pananma, Philippines, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Turkey Andorra, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Luxembourg, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Oman, Portugal, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, United States, Vietnam
Nov-11 11 26 Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Pananma, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Turkey Andorra, Bahrain, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Montenegro, Oman, Portugal, Senegal, Spain, Tunisia, United States, Vietnam
Oct-11 13 26 Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Georgia, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Pananma, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Montenegro, Oman, Portugal, Senegal, Spain, Tunisia, United States, Vietnam
Sep-11 13 26 Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Georgia, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Pananma, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Montenegro, Oman, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, United States, Vietnam
Aug-11 14 27 Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Georgia, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Montserrat, Pananma, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Montenegro, New Zealand, Oman, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, United States, Vietnam
Jul-11 17 27 Azerbaijan, Brazil, Chile, Czech Republic, Estonia, Fiji, Georgia, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Montserrat, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Montenegro, New Zealand, Oman, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, United States, Vietnam
Jun-11 15 25 Azerbaijan, Brazil, Chile, Czech Republic, Estonia, Fiji, Georgia, Honduras, Indonesia, Latvia, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Montenegro, New Zealand, Oman, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, United States, Vietnam
May-11 15 24 Azerbaijan, Brazil, Chile, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Fiji, Georgia, Indonesia, Latvia, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Montenegro, New Zealand, Oman, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, United States, Vietnam
Apr-11 15 24 Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Chile, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Fiji, Georgia, Indonesia, Latvia, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Japan, Jordan, Montenegro, New Zealand, Oman, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, United States, Vietnam
Mar-11 14 23 Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Chile, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Georgia, Indonesia, Latvia, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Jordan, Montenegro, New Zealand, Oman, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, Vietnam
Feb-11 13 24 Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Indonesia, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Jordan, Libya, Montenegro, New Zealand, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, Vietnam
Jan-11 12 20 Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Belarus, Belgium, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Montenegro, New Zealand, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, Vietnam
Dec-10 13 21 Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Lebanon, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Belarus, Belgium, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, New Zealand, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Vietnam
Nov-10 13 20 Azerbaijan, Benin, Bolivia, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Lebanon, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Aruba, Belarus, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, New Zealand, Portugal, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, Vietnam
Oct-10 14 18 Azerbaijan, Benin, Bolivia, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Belarus, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, Portugal, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, Vietnam
Sep-10 14 20 Azerbaijan, Benin, Bolivia, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Barbados, Belarus, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, Portugal, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, United Kingdom, Vietnam
Aug-10 15 21 Azerbaijan, Benin, Bolivia, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Montserrat, Paraguay, Peru, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, Portugal, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, United Kingdom, Vietnam
Jul-10 12 22 Azerbaijan, Benin, Bolivia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Montserrat, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, Portugal, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, United Kingdom, Vietnam
Jun-10 11 20 Azerbaijan, Benin, Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Montserrat, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey Andorra, Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Ghana, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, Portugal, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, United Kingdom, Vietnam
May-10 10 20 Azerbaijan, Benin, Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Ghana, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, Portugal, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Vietnam
Apr-10 10 19 Azerbaijan, Benin, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Panama, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey, Ukraine Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Ghana, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Vietnam
Mar-10 10 19 Azerbaijan, Benin, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Panama, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey, Ukraine Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Ghana, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Vietnam
Feb-10 9 21 Azerbaijan, Benin, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Panama, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Turkey Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Ghana, Greece, Iceland, India, Ireland, Japan, Montenegro, Portugal, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Vietnam
Jan-10 8 25 Azerbaijan, Benin, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Panama, Sri Lanka, Suriname Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Botswana, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Estonia, Ghana, Greece, Iceland, India, Ireland, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Portugal, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Vietnam
Dec-09 8 25 Azerbaijan, Benin, Indonesia, Kenya, Lebanon, Panama, Sri Lanka, Suriname Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Botswana, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Croatia, Estonia, Ghana, Greece, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Portugal, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam
Nov-09 5 28 Benin, Indonesia, Kenya, Panama, Sri Lanka Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Botswana, Bulgaria, Cook Islands, Croatia, Estonia, Fiji, Ghana, Iceland, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam
Oct-09 4 28 Benin, Indonesia, Kenya, Sri Lanka Bahamas, Belarus, Bermuda, Botswana, Bulgaria, Cook Islands, Croatia, Estonia, Fiji, Ghana, Iceland, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Mongolia, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam
Sep-09 3 29 Benin, Kenya, Ukraine Bahamas, Belarus, Bermuda, Botswana, Bulgaria, Cook Islands, Croatia, Estonia, Fiji, Ghana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Mongolia, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam
Aug-09 3 33 Benin, Kenya, Ukraine Bahamas, Belarus, Bermuda, Botswana, Bulgaria, Cook Islands, Croatia, Estonia, Fiji, Ghana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mexico, Mongolia, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam
Jul-09 3 34 Benin, Kenya, Ukraine Bahamas, Belarus, Bermuda, Botswana, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Fiji, Ghana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mexico, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nigeria, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam
Jun-09 2 35 Benin, Kenya Bahamas, Belarus, Bermuda, Botswana, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Fiji, Ghana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mexico, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nigeria, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam
May-09 2 35 Benin, Kenya Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Bermuda, Botswana, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Fiji, Ghana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mexico, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nigeria, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Vietnam
Apr-09 2 37 Benin, Kenya Andorra, Bahamas, Barbados, Belarus, Botswana, Bulgaria, Croatia, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Ghana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madagascar, Mongolia, Montenegro, New Zealand, Nigeria, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Vietnam
Mar-09 2 35 Benin, Kenya Andorra, Bahamas, Belarus, Botswana, Bulgaria, Croatia, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Ghana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madagascar, Mongolia, Montenegro, New Zealand, Nigeria, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Vietnam
Feb-09 2 33 Benin, Kenya Andorra, Bahamas, Belarus, Botswana, Bulgaria, Croatia, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madagascar, Mongolia, Montenegro, New Zealand, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Thailand, Trinidad & Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Vietnam
Jan-09 2 28 Benin, Kenya Andorra, Bahamas, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, El Salvador, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mongolia, Montenegro, New Zealand, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Vietnam
Dec-08 2 26 Benin, Kenya Andorra, Bahamas, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, El Salvador, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mongolia, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, Vietnam
Nov-08 2 25 Benin, Kenya Andorra, Bahamas, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Ukraine, Vietnam
Oct-08 4 21 Benin, Guatemala, Kenya, Slovakia Andorra, Bulgaria, Croatia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Pakistan, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, Sri Lanka, Ukraine, Vietnam
Sep-08 7 16 Benin, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Israel, Kenya, Poland, Slovakia Andorra, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Serbia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam
Aug-08 8 16 Benin, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Israel, Kenya, Poland, Russia, Slovakia Andorra, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Serbia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam
Jul-08 9 17 Benin, Burkina Faso, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Israel, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Trinidad & Tobago Andorra, Argentina, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Vietnam
Jun-08 12 18 Benin, Burkina Faso, China, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Peru, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay Andorra, Argentina, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Vietnam
May-08 12 19 Benin, Burkina Faso, China, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Peru, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay Andorra, Argentina, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Ukraine, Turkey, Vietnam
Apr-08 14 18 Benin, Burkina Faso, China, Georgia, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Peru, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay Andorra, Argentina, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Ukraine, Turkey
Mar-08 17 15 Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Cyprus, Georgia, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Morocco, Peru, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay Andorra, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Ukraine
Feb-08 15 14 Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Cyprus, Georgia, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Morocco, Peru, Poland, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay Andorra, Dominican Republic, Estonia, Iceland, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Ukraine
Jan-08 15 12 Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Cyprus, Georgia, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Morocco, Panama, Peru, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay Andorra, Estonia, Iceland, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Seychelles, Taiwan, Ukraine
Dec-07 16 12 Bahamas, Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Cyprus, Georgia, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Morocco, Panama, Peru, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay Andorra, Estonia, Iceland, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Seychelles, Taiwan, Ukraine
Nov-07 20 12 Bahamas, Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Georgia, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Panama, Peru, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay Andorra, Estonia, Iceland, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Pakistan, Romania, Senegal, Seychelles, Taiwan, Ukraine
Oct-07 21 11 Bahamas, Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Georgia, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay Andorra, Bolivia, Ecuador, Estonia, Fiji, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Senegal, Taiwan, Ukraine
Sep-07 22 11 Bahamas, Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay Andorra, Bolivia, Ecuador, Estonia, Fiji, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Senegal, Taiwan, Ukraine
Aug-07 22 11 Bahamas, Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay Andorra, Bolivia, Ecuador, Estonia, Fiji, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Senegal, Taiwan, Ukraine
Jul-07 21 11 Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Guatemala, Hong Kong, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay Bolivia, Ecuador, Estonia, Fiji, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Ukraine
Jun-07 17 10 Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Israel, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Panama, Serbia, Suriname, Uruguay Bolivia, Ecuador, Fiji, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Ukraine
May-07 18 10 Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Israel, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Serbia, Suriname, Uruguay Bolivia, Ecuador, Fiji, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Ukraine
Apr-07 16 9 Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Israel, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Serbia, Suriname Bolivia, Ecuador, Fiji, Latvia, Lebanon, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Ukraine
Mar-07 18 9 Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Cook Islands, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Israel, Japan, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Romania, Serbia, Suriname Benin, Bolivia, Ecuador, Fiji, Latvia, Lebanon, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
Feb-07 18 9 Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Israel, Japan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Romania, Serbia, Suriname Benin, Bolivia, Ecuador, Fiji, Latvia, Lebanon, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
Jan-07 17 8 Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Japan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Romania, Serbia, Suriname Benin, Bolivia, Ecuador, Fiji, Lebanon, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
Dec-06 19 7 Bermuda, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., India, Japan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Romania, Serbia, Suriname, Venezuela Benin, Bolivia, Fiji, Lebanon, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
Nov-06 17 10 Brazil, Burkina Faso, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., India, Japan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Romania, Serbia, Suriname, Venezuela Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Fiji, Hungary, Iceland, Lebanon, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
Oct-06 19 9 Burkina Faso, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Georgia, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Romania, Serbia, Suriname, Venezuela Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Lebanon, Hungary, Iceland, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
Sep-06 19 11 Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Georgia, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Romania, Serbia, Suriname Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Lebanon, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand (CW)
Aug-06 20 9 Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Domincan Rep., Georgia, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Serbia, Suriname, Uruguay, Vietnam Belize, Bolivia, Lebanon (CW), Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
Jul-06 19 9 Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Georgia, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Serbia, Suriname, Uruguay, Vietnam Belize, Bolivia, Lebanon (CW), Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
Jun-06 22 8 Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Estonia, Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Serbia, Suriname, Uruguay, Vietnam Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
May-06 22 7 Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Estonia, Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Serbia, Suriname, Turkey, Uruguay, Vietnam Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Hungary, Italy, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
Apr-06 22 7 Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Estonia, Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Serbia, Suriname, Turkey, Uruguay, Vietnam Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Hungary, Italy, Sri Lanka, Taiwan
Mar-06 23 6 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Czech Rep., Estonia, Georgia, Indonesia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Suriname, Turkey, Uruguay, Vietnam Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Hungary, Italy, Taiwan
Feb-06 22 6 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Czech Rep., Estonia, Georgia, Indonesia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Suriname, Turkey, Uruguay, Vietnam Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Hungary, Italy, Taiwan
Jan-06 19 7 Bahrain, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Czech Rep., Estonia, Georgia, Lithuania, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Suriname, Turkey, Uruguay, Vietnam Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Hungary, Italy, Philippines, Taiwan
Dec-05 17 6 Bahrain, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Czech Rep., Estonia, Georgia, Lithania, Mongolia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Mozambique, Pakistan, Peru, Poland, Suriname, Vietnam Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Italy, Philippines, Taiwan
Nov-05 15 6 Bahrain, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Czech Rep., Estonia, Lithuania, Montserrat, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Slovakia, Suriname, Vietnam Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Italy, Philippines, Taiwan
Oct-05 12 6 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Estonia, Lithuania, Montserrat, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Slovakia, Vietnam Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Italy, Philippines, Taiwan
Sep-05 11 7 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Estonia, Lithuania, Montserrat, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Slovakia, Vietnam Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Ecuador (CW), Italy, Philippines, Taiwan
Aug-05 14 7 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Estonia, Indonesia, Lithuania, Montserrat, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Ecuador (CW), Italy, Philippines, Taiwan
Jul-05 16 5 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Estonia, Indonesia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Philippines, Taiwan
Jun-05 16 3 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Bolivia, Taiwan
May-05 16 5 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador (CW), Portugal, Taiwan
Apr-05 15 5 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Indonesia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Costa Rica, Ecuador (CW), Portugal, Taiwan
Mar-05 15 5 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Indonesia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Costa Rica, Cook Islands (CW), Portugal, Taiwan
Feb-05 14 6 Bahrain, Bulgaria, China, Indonesia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Costa Rica, Cook Islands (CW), Egypt, Portugal, Taiwan
Jan-05 13 7 Bahrain, China, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Macedonia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Slovakia, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Panama, Portugal, Taiwan
Dec-04 13 8 Bahrain, China, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Macedonia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Slovakia, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Israel, Panama, Portugal, Taiwan
Nov-04 14 10 Bahrain, China, Croatia, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Macedonia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Qatar, Slovakia, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Grenada (CW), Israel, Jamaica, Panama, Portugal, Taiwan
Oct-04 16 10 Bahrain, China, Croatia, Estonia, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Macedonia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Qatar, Slovakia, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Grenada (CW), Greece, Israel, Jamaica, Panama, Portugal
Sep-04 16 10 Bahrain, China, Cook Islands, Croatia, Estonia, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Macedonia, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Qatar, Slovakia, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Grenada (CW), Greece, Israel, Jamaica, Panama, Poland
Aug-04 18 8 Bahrain, Brazil, China, Cook Islands, Croatia, Estonia, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Macedonia, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Israel, Jamaica, Panama, Poland
Jul-04 19 10 Bahrain, Brazil, China, Cook Islands, Croatia, Estonia, Iceland, Indonesia, Macedonia, Morocco, Mozambique, Pakistan, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Israel, Jamaica, Panama, Poland
Jun-04 19 10 Bahrain, Brazil, China, Cook Islands, Croatia, Estonia, Iceland, Indonesia, Latvia, Morocco, Pakistan, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Panama, Poland
May-04 16 10 Bahrain, Brazil, China, Cook Islands, Estonia, Iceland, Indonesia, Latvia, Morocca, Pakistan, Romania, Slovak Rep, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Panama, Poland
Apr-04 16 10 Bahrain, Brazil, China, Cook Islands, Estonia, Iceland, Latvia, Morocco, Pakistan, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia , Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Panama, Poland
Mar-04 16 10 Bahrain, Brazil, China, Cook Islands, Estonia, Iceland, Latvia, Morocco, Pakistan, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia , Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Panama, Poland
Feb-04 14 11 Bahrain, Brazil, China, Cook Islands, Estonia, Iceland, Latvia, Pakistan, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Thailand, Ukraine Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Panama, Poland
Jan-04 16 10 Bahrain, Brazil, China, Cook Islands, Estonia, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Pakistan, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Ukraine Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Israel, Italy, Japan, Panama, Poland
Dec-03 17 10 Bahrain, Brazil, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Estonia, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Pakistan, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Ukraine Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, Israel, Italy, Japan, Panama, Poland
Nov-03 12 12 Chile, China, Cook Islands, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Ukraine Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Poland
Oct-03 12 12 Chile, China, Cook Islands, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, Ukraine Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Panama, Poland, Papua New Guinea
Sep-03 12 11 Chile, China, Cook Islands, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Panama, Poland, Papua New Guinea
Aug-03 13 11 Chile, China, Cook Islands, Ecuador, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., Egypt, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Panama, Poland, Papua New Guinea
Jul-03 13 10 Chile, China, Cook Islands, Ecuador, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Panama, Poland, Papua New Guinea
Jun-03 12 12 Chile, China, Cook Islands, Ecuador, Lebanon, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Suriname, Sweden, Thailand Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep., India, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Panama, Poland, Papua New Guinea
May-03 13 11 Chile, China, Cook Islands, Ecuador, Greece, Lebanon, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Suriname, Sweden, Thailand Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Rep. (CW), India, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Panama, Papua New Guinea
Apr-03 16 13 Bulgaria, Chile, China, Cook Islands, Ecuador, Greece, Kazakhstan, Lebanon, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Suriname, Sweden, Thailand Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, India, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Ukraine, Uruguay
Mar-03 15 15 Bulgaria, Chile, Cook Islands, Ecuador, Greece, Kazakhstan, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Suriname, Sweden, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, India, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Panama, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela
Feb-03 15 14 Bulgaria, Chile, Cook Islands, Ecuador, Greece, Kazakhstan, Qatar, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Suriname, Sweden, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, India, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela

Rating/Assessment Histories

The rating and assessment histories are shown in table 4, with the top line for each sovereign showing the ratings and assessment as of Sept. 30, 2019. The rating history for the U.S. dates back to as early as Jan. 1, 1941. For most, they start on the day S&P Global Ratings first assigned a rating. For information on our sovereign rating criteria, please see "Sovereign Rating Methodology," published on Dec. 18, 2017, on RatingsDirect.

The right-most column below in table 4 contains T&C assessments. The history begins in November 2005, at which time S&P Global Ratings expanded its criteria for analyzing T&C risk. A T&C assessment is the rating associated with the likelihood of the sovereign restricting access to foreign exchange needed for debt service. For most countries, S&P Global Ratings' analysis concludes that this risk is less than the risk of sovereign default on foreign currency obligations thus, most T&C assessments exceed the sovereign foreign currency rating. Foreign currency ratings of nonsovereign entities or transactions generally can be as high as the T&C assessment if their stress-tested operating and financial characteristics support the higher rating.

If a sovereign, through membership in a monetary or currency union, has ceded monetary and exchange rate policy responsibility to a monetary authority that the sovereign does not solely control, the T&C assessment reflects the policies of the controlling monetary authority, vis-à-vis the exchange of its currency for other currencies in the context of debt service. The same applies if a sovereign uses as its local currency the currency of another sovereign. A T&C assessment may change sharply if a sovereign introduces a new local currency, by entering or exiting a monetary or currency union, or through some other means. This is because the new local currency, and in some cases the new monetary authority, may operate in very different monetary and exchange regimes. The T&C assessment does not normally reflect the likelihood of change in a country's local currency.


Study History with help from the Sovereign Hill Museums Association

There are many great reasons to learn about the past, and that is why The Sovereign Hill Museums Association (SHMA) exists! We aim to “Connect people through our history to adapt for a better future” and “Provide meaningful, immersive experiences that tell stories of our humanity”. To support this purpose and mission, the Victorian Curriculum-aligned education programs presented by our Education Officers focus on learning through inquiry. Some of the key questions that guide our inquiries include:

  • Does the past make us who we are today?
  • Whose history is it?
  • What should stay in the past?
  • How has our culture changed over time?
  • Were we more sustainable in the past?

Being curious about where we come from helps us understand who we are today, and what our future might hold. Traditionally written History tells stories of individual people and societies from a specific point in time. However, interest in “Big History” (which places humans in a much longer story about the universe and the rise of life on Earth) is growing, as is the valuing of oral history traditions like those treasured by the Wadawurrung people – the Traditional Owners of the region on which this blogpost was written.

While History as an academic discipline has only existed for a couple of centuries, humans have explored themselves and their ancestors through historical stories for hundreds of thousands of years. A Greek writer by the name of Herodotus – who lived during the 5th century BCE – is thought to be the “father of HHistory” in the Western intellectual tradition, but the way we study History has changed much since then and will continue to change long into the future. When a capital “H” is used, the writer is referring to the academic discipline, while using a lower-case “h” indicates something that has merely happened in the past, e.g. “At university I majored in History” and “I like researching my family history”.

Below you will find descriptions of the onsite and online learning opportunities the SHMA makes available to students of all ages. We are particularly excited to share our new – and FREE! – digital learning packages with you, which we launched in 2020. These carefully curated learning packages are designed around the following themes: Colonial Life, 19th Century Migration, Aboriginal People and the Goldfields, Environmental Impacts of the Goldfields, Goldfields Technology, Industrial Revolution, and Early Years Object Based Learning. Each of these packages has an “inquiry” learning approach and can be utilised by teachers and students prior to attending Sovereign Hill, when you return to school after SHMA camp/excursion, or can complement studies of Victoria’s famous gold rushes even if you are unable to visit. You can register for the learning packages here.

Students can learn about 19th century transport technologies through a ride on Sovereign Hill’s famous horse-drawn coach we think experiential learning is the most powerful type of learning!

While SHMA’s Education Team enjoys reading and writing about history, we think one of the best ways to learn about the past is by immersing our visitors in it. This can involve getting dirty hands on the goldfields like a 19th century miner, exploring artefacts and past technologies with the help of museum experts, eating historical food, or interacting with interpreters in period clothing. The SHMA manages three sites to explore the history of both the Ballarat region and the State of Victoria:

    (a historically-immersive timeline experience which tells the story of Ballarat’s famous 19th century gold rush through activated streetscapes), (the SHMA cares for more than 150,000 fascinating items which are used to tell the stories of Ballarat, the Victorian goldfields, and the extraordinary impact of the 19th century gold rushes had on Australia), (a 2,000-hectare sheep farm and school camp facility where visiting schools learn about sustainability, biodiversity and Aboriginal cultural heritage).

When teachers book class excursions/camps with us, our Bookings Officers help you personalise an itinerary that complements what your Foundation to Tertiary students are learning at school. Our Education Team can build rich learning experiences for students studying many topics and academic disciplines – from History to Science, English to Food Studies! We also offer special 1.5hr VCE masterclasses for Australian History, Geography, Business Management, and Health and Human Development students, which are becoming very popular. Most teachers choose one of these education programs for their class, and then add tours, demonstrations and self-exploration time into their itinerary. Discover the full list of exciting learning opportunities the Sovereign Hill Museums Association makes available to student visitors here. Teachers are also welcome to contact our team to discuss the development of a unique education session tailored to the needs of a specific class.

Our Education Officers also make learning resources for students aimed at deepening History knowledge and skills as described in the Victorian Curriculum. Some are specifically designed to help students develop the Capabilities, known in the Victorian Curriculum as Critical and Creative Thinking, Ethical, Intercultural and Personal and Social. We think these skills are crucial for 21st century people to master, and are best developed through studying the Humanities.

Many students go underground while visiting Sovereign Hill to learn about Ballarat’s “Deep Lead” and “Quartz” mining eras.

In the days before an excursion or camp, students can read blogposts and explore this “Student Resources” webpage. In particular, primary-aged students should watch this video to understand what to expect from a visit to the Sovereign Hill Living Museum. We partnered with ABC Education a few years ago to produce a “digibook” called The Colonisation of the Central Victorian Goldfields, which can also help students contextualise their visit and the stories the SHMA tells.

While onsite at the Living Museum, teachers can make use of the various resources listed on our “Teacher Resources” webpage.

After visiting, students can explore specific resources that relate to the contents of their education session, which are emailed to the teacher that makes the school booking.

Two excellent (and free!) SHMA resources that all schools should use to support learning about colonial Australia are:

    – explore the Aboriginal side of the goldrush story through this free “digitour”, for which we have produced supporting primary and secondary teaching kits. – a teaching kit featuring learning activities for Level 3 to VCE students.

The Sovereign Hill Museums Association works hard to bring History to life through both onsite and online experiences, and we hope teachers make the most of our organisation as an educational resource.

Handling artefacts = immersive and powerful learning. We think getting “hands-on” with history is the best way to explore the past.

When we consider the challenges that lie ahead for humans and our planet, it has probably never been more important to learn about how people in the past have tackled challenges, managed change, and made good decisions. We like this quote from the Australian History Councils’ “The Value of History” publication:

The study of the past and telling its stories are critical to our sense of belonging, to our communities and to our shared future. History shapes our identities, engages us as citizens, creates inclusive communities, is part of our economic well-being, teaches us to think critically and creatively, inspires leaders and is the foundation of our future generations.

Why do you think studying History is important? Please share your thoughts in the comment section at the bottom of this blogpost to get involved in the conversation.


A brief history of the last crisis

The last time the economy blew up was back in 2008. Most of our readers probably remember it– the global financial system almost collapsed.

Just prior to the 2008 crisis, housing was in a major, worldwide bubble. Central banks around the world had cut interest rates to near-zero levels, making it incredibly cheap to borrow money.

By 2005, lenders offered mortgages with teaser rates as low as 0.9%. And demand was furious. Buyers gobbled up homes as quickly as they came on the market, and housing prices reached all-time highs.

The housing market was so hot in the early 2000s that lenders stopped requiring borrowers to make a 20% down payment, and even extended these terms to borrowers with terrible credit.

Soon, banks were lending more than 100% of a home’s value, at ridiculously low mortgage rates, to borrowers who had a track record of not paying their debts, at a time when housing prices were at record highs.

What could have possibly gone wrong.

Eventually the housing market went bust, and millions of people around the world stopped paying their mortgages.

Suddenly the homes were worth less than their mortgages, and banks were sitting on trillions of dollars worth of losses.

Several banks collapsed, and the whole financial system almost went down with them… triggering one of the biggest financial crises in history.

Asset prices everywhere crashed. Real estate prices fell. Global stock markets sank the S&P 500 in the United States shed 57% of its value, losing more than a decade worth of gains.

And most major commodities fell too– from oil to copper to cotton. Even gold and silver fell. Investors were in a panic, and many of them were forced to sell everything to raise cash.

Due to all the panic selling, silver fell by roughly 50%, and gold about 30%.

But by October 2008, governments and central banks around the world announced unprecedented stimulus programs. Government debt surged to levels never before seen in the history of the world, and central banks conjured trillions of dollars, euros, pounds, and yen out of thin air.

It was at this point that both gold and silver began rising rapidly.

You might also recall that inflation began to increase as a result of all this new debt and money printing.

In particular, food and fuel prices soared. In just six months from September 2010 to March 2011, for example, gasoline prices in the US rose 50%, from $2.61 to nearly $4. It was painful.

But the people responsible for creating such havoc were totally clueless.

In March 2011, the President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York held a press conference to downplay everyone’s concerns and insist that inflation wasn’t a problem.

As proof, he told the audience that the price of an iPad 2 was lower than the price of an iPad 1… therefore (in his view) prices were actually falling.

It became known as the “Let them eat iPad” speech, and prompted one reporter to ask, “When was the last time, sir, that you went grocery shopping?” And another to exclaim, “I can’t eat an iPad!”

Real assets performed very well during this period. Though there were some exceptions.

The housing market bust was so severe that residential real estate prices in most of the world declined for several years.

The median home price in the United States, for example, didn’t start to rise again until 2012– more than four years after the crisis started.

But raw land, and especially farmland, performed very well.

Precious metals also rose dramatically. Even though they both fell in the early days of the crisis, the price of gold would more than double in value, and the price of silver increased more than 5x.

We can’t say, of course, that this is exactly the scenario that will unfold this time around. The circumstances are obviously different.

But one key similarity between the financial crisis of 2008 and today is the tidal wave of debt and money printing.

Today they’re printing far more money than they printed back in 2008, because, frankly, the scope of the crisis is much greater.

By the end of 2019 there was a record $250 trillion worth of debt worldwide that amount includes the value of all government debt, corporate debt, consumer debt, home mortgages, etc. worldwide.

If even a small percentage of that debt ends up going to money heaven, the losses will completely dwarf the 2008 financial crisis.

That’s why the Federal Reserve has already printed $2.5 trillion in the last two months alone. They’re trying to print money to cover the losses and less the economic impact of the pandemic.

They’ve also slashed interest rates to zero, and the futures market expects that rates will turn NEGATIVE by January.

It seems clear that central banks will print whatever it takes to ease the crisis.

And that could mean a lot of things. Perhaps we’ll see a return to the 1970s style stagflation (which we talked about last week.)

Or perhaps we’ll see a conditions similar to what happened in the last financial crisis.

There are plenty of possibilities, and no one knows for sure exactly what will happen next.

But if history is any guide, real assets typically perform very well when central banks print incomprehensible sums of money.


Sovereign Indigenous leader of Mexico created history at United Nations

[Image above provided by GNI: on the left is the new Governor of the sovereign Indigenous (35 Million member) Nation of Mexico (GNI) Alejandro González Leon and on the right is Secretary of the Exterior and BCR’S Representative in Mexico, Alberto Castellanos.] Both received Honorary Doctorates for their Humanitarian work.

This week we asked Alberto Castellanos if he would mind if we published some of the background events that went on when our Business Manager, David McNulty and I met their delegation at the United Nations and he said, “Absolutely, it’s fine to share what happened”. This was a historical event after all.

The GNI had received an invitation from the publisher of the “Society & Diplomatic Review” Ms. Gloria Starr Kins to attend an evening she was hosting In honor of a member of or an event related to the Nigerian consulate on November 7, 2019 in New York City.

When I heard about the event, and called Castellanos to confirm, Castellanos told me that they had already booked flights and accommodations and that only one or two of them needed VISAS.

I explained that the United Nations was celebrating “The International day of the indigenous” on November 9th (just 2 days later) and that they MUST not only change the airline tickets and accommodations from the 7th to the 9th but also ask the American Embassy to re-issue new VISAS for whomever needed them.

Castellanos put the Governor on the phone so that I could explain why changing their travel plans was so important to their work and Hipolito agreed with me that attending two days later was wiser.

As an invitee to the Nigerian November 7th event, the Governor of the Indigenous people of Mexico would be “a guest”. By attending the Indigenous Peoples event on November 9th, just two days later, he would be setting a precedent. It would be the first time in history that his 35 Million people would be represented at the United Nations.

It would also be the first time all three North American leaders of the Indigenous People would be in the same place at the same time.

Hipolito certainly was not going to disappoint his people by being present and wasting such a remarkable opportunity. He patiently waited but it was nearing the end of the day and the panel seemed to want to wrap up the event.

No one could ignore the quiet, stoic and dignified man wearing his trademark cowboy hat and traditional white shirt and slacks with his hand still up waiting to be recognized to address the room.

He was recognized and asked if he wished to speak. Suddenly, his microphone was turned on and from his seat, he addressed the United Nations. Hipolito made history that day.

With his hand held high, Hipolito Arriaga Pote waited to be recognized at the United Nations

Hipolito was one of three leaders at the event representing the International Indigenous People from north America. That day, Grand Chief Edward John (Tl’azt’en Nation) a Hereditary Chief of Tl’azt’en Nation located in Northern BC Canada was representing the Indigenous of Canada and Chief Howard Thompson of the Mohawk Nation and Indigenous leader of the Indigenous People of the United States were both present. With Hipolito there as well, it meant that all three leaders of the Indigenous People of North America were present.

If Hipolito would listen to my request to change the entire delegation’s travel plans, he would be influencing history because it would be the first time in world history in which all 3 governors of the indigenous nations of Canada, the United States, and Mexico would be together under one roof on such a memorable day as the International day of the indigenous and in the same room at the United Nations.

Grand Chief Edward John (Tl’azt’en Nation) a Hereditary Chief of Tl’azt’en Nation located in Northern BC Canada was a panelist for the occassion. Chief John is a former Expert Member of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. He served as a leader on the First Nations Summit Political Executive and was an indigenous Co-Chair of the International Year of Indigenous Languages. As a panelist he sat on stage with the other speakers.

Grand Chief Edward John (Tl’azt’en Nation) is a Hereditary Chief of Tl’azt’en Nation
located in Northern British Colombia, Canada.

During that unforgettable event, Chief Howard Thompson of the Mohawk Nation and Indigenous leader of the United States Indigenous People sat right next to Hipolito Arriaga Pote. There they were, all three leaders of the Indigenous Nations of North America, together in the same room at the same time.

L to R: A smiling Hipolito Arriaga Pote sitting right next to Chief Howard Thompson of the Mohawk Nation and recognized leader of the Indigenous People of the United States of America, Mr. Brian Keane, Rapporteur of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues on International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples Chief Howard Thompson addressed the event in his own Mohawk language Hipolito Arriaga Pote represented his Gubernatura Nacional Indigena with great prestige when he spoke at the United Nations on
behalf of his people on the International Day of the Indigenous in the ECOSOC Chamber at the United Nations.

Tracking the history of sovereign defaults

Bank of Canada has assembled a new broad database on global public debt default. It shows that after sovereign delinquency had exceeded 5% of outstanding debt in the 1980s, it declined alongside falling interest rates to below 1% in the 2000s and has remained low despite the global financial and euro sovereign crises. In a longer (200 year) context sovereign default ratios have moved in long cycles, each stretching over several decades.

“Introducing a New Database of Sovereign Defaults”, David T. Beers and Jean-Sébastien Nadeau
Bank of Canada, Technical Report No. 101, ‎25 ‎February ‎2014
http://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/tr101.pdf

The below are excerpts from the report. Emphasis and cursive text has been added.

The new database

“The Bank of Canada’s Credit Rating Assessment Group (CRAG) has developed a comprehensive database of sovereign defaults posted on the Bank of Canada’s website. Our database draws on previously published data sets compiled by various official and private sector sources. It combines elements of these, together with new information, to develop estimates of stocks of government obligations in default, including bonds and other marketable securities, bank loans, and official loans in default, valued in U.S. dollars, for the years 1975 to 2013 on both a country-by-country and a global basis.”

“An important reason is that there is no single internationally recognized definition of what constitutes a sovereign default….We consider that a default has occurred when debt service is not paid on the due date (or within a specified grace period), payments are not made within the time frame specified under a guarantee , or, absent an outright payment default, in any of the following circumstances where creditors incur material economic losses on the sovereign debt they hold:

  • agreements between governments and creditors that reduce interest rates and/or extend maturities on outstanding debt
  • government exchange offers to creditors where existing debt is swapped for new debt on less-economic terms
  • government purchases of debt at substantial discounts to par
  • government redenomination of foreign currency debt into new local currency obligations on less-economic terms
  • swaps of sovereign debt for equity (usually relating to privatization programs) on less-economic terms or,
  • conversion of central bank notes into new currency of less-than-equivalent face value.”

A condensed history

“ Cross-border bond financing for governments emerged in the 1820s , when newly independent states in Latin America and other regions, as well as some longer-established sovereigns, began issuing bonds denominated in foreign currency in European financial centres. Defaults soon followed on a substantial scale and persisted well into the 20th century.”

“After the Second World War, owing to pervasive national controls on capital movements, cross-border bond issuance by governments fell to low levels, as did defaults, and both remained low over nearly four decades. For a relatively brief period, in the 1970s and 1980s, foreign currency-denominated loans by banks eclipsed bonds in importance. Many developing and East European countries defaulted on bank loans in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to creditor losses . The banks’ subsequent exit from this business laid the groundwork for low- and middle-income sovereigns to regain access to cross-border bond markets in the 1990s, which continues to this day. Since then, bond defaults have risen again but remain well below their earlier historical peaks .”

“Three peak default periods stand out – between the 1830s and 1850s, when default rates exceeded 25 per cent in the 1870s, when default rates averaged 18 per cent and in the 1930s, when they reached 21 per cent. Of note, too, is the sharp decline in bond defaults after the Second World War that persisted through the 1980s. The resolution of many prewar bond defaults was the main driver of the fall in the default rate. At the same time, the fragmentation of the early post-Second World War cross-border financial markets limited bond market access to only the most creditworthy borrowers, and so defaults on new issues were low.”

“ After 1945, lending to governments by the IMF and other newly established MLIs [multilateral lending institutions] quickly gained prominence …They increasingly targeted loans to developing country governments on concessional terms, and initially defaults on official loans were low….By the 1980s, however, the sharp rise in sovereign defaults on bank loans…was accompanied by growing defaults on loans from official creditors…official and private debt in default together amounted to nearly USD400 billion by 1990, with official debt accounting for about 11 per cent of the total. By 1995, the share of official creditor debt exceeded 40 per cent. The factors driving both bank loans and official loans into default were often closely linked , owing to the adverse fiscal impact in many countries from the spike in world oil prices and in U.S. short-term interest rates. The latter directly impacted the cost of syndicated bank loans contracted by many sovereign borrowers and helped ratchet up the real burden of their public debt.”

“Chart 3 scales the nominal value of debt in default by nominal global public debt and GDP to obtain a more macroeconomic perspective on the relative importance of sovereign defaults. At the start of the 1980s, defaults had minimal impact globally. However, by the middle of the decade [1980s], when fiscal stresses affecting low- and middle-income countries were most severe, the sovereign debt that defaulted, was restructured, and in many cases was ultimately written down peaked at just over 5 per cent of global public deb t. The increase was milder in terms of global GDP, rising from near zero to about 2 per cent…the global footprint left by these debt workouts has since faded, despite Argentina’s big default in 2000 and, most recently, the restructurings of sovereign bonds and official loans in the euro area.”


The Sovereign Has Become The Most Underutilized Ship In History

Since it first burst onto the screen in First Contact I think the Sovereign class is one of the prettiest designs ever put out into the Star Trek universe.

Sleek modern, and powerful, but with elements you could trace back to TMP. It was a worthy successor to the Galaxy class -- but it never actually was. and that's my point.

Obviously there are specific reasons it never made an appearance in DS9 despite multiple fleet actions. Much like Cryptic is doing now, the Sovereign was "exclusive" to the TNG movies. A special event ship not for the small screen.

That I can understand. Now however, and especially with the release of the Picard countdown comic, the Sovereign has been completely pushed aside so the writers could retcon the Odyssey class to replace it just 5 years after Nemesis?!

That ship now appears in the 2380s and is seemingly the flagship of choice by the 2410s. That boxes the lifespan of the Sovereign to basically about 10-15 years.

How is this ship not at the very least replacing the Excelsior class as the fleet workhorse, a ship designed 100 years earlier?

The Sovereign was billed as the peak of Starfleet engineering and yet no one has ever given this ship its due. With the nonsensical retcon of the Odyssey -- a ship originally created 30 years later -- it looks like it never will.


Watch the video: A Fascinating History of the Sovereign