(AM-307: dp. 945 (f.); 1. 184'6, b. 33'0 dr. 9'9; s. 14.8 k. (tl.); cpl. 104; a. 1 3", 4 10 mm., cl.Admirable)
Staunch (AM-307) was laid down on 5 September 1943 at Seattle, Wash., by Associated Shipbuilders launched on 15 February 1944; sponsored by Miss Gwendolyn Crosson; and commissioned on 9 September 1944, Lt. Comdr. John C. Kettenring, USNR, in command.
Following shakedown training and antisubmarine warfare (ASW) training out of San Pedro and San Diego, Staunch was overhauled at Long Beach and then headed for Hawaii at the end of November. She arrived in Pearl Harbor on 10 December, took on supplies and sweep gear, participated in amphibious exercises, and got underway for the Central Pacific on 22 January 1945. The minesweeper stopped at Eniwetok for fuel and provisions from 3 to 5 February, before continuing on to the Marianas. She conducted ASW patrols for several days and took on fuel and supplies at Tinian; then, on 13 February, sailed with Task Unit (TU) 52.3.18 in the screen of Terror (CM-5). Staunch arrived off Iwo Jima early on the 16th and made a sweep of the shoreline. On the 17th and 18th, she served as an antisubmarine picket and bombarded the shore on the eve of the assault. Staunch spent D-day assisting in the refueling of the smaller minesweepers All during her stay at Iwo Jima, she joined other minesweepers in screening Terror during nightly retirements to the transport area.
After the landings on the 19th, Staunch remained in the Bonins until 7 March. While there, she served on several patrol stations and helped rescue sailors who fell overboard during a collision between Logan
(APA-196) and Napa (APA-157). She cleared the Bonins on 7 March and reached Ulithi, in the western Carolines, four days later. After eight days of repairs provisioning, and fueling, Staunch exited Ulithi lagoon on 19 March. She reached the Ryukyus on 25 March and immediately streamed her gear to sweep mines around Kerama Retto. Between 26 and 29 March, Staunch and the other minesweepers swept mines from the approaches to the assault beaches on Okinawa, fueled the smaller minesweepers, and periodically fought off air attacks. Each night she retired seaward.
Duty in the antisubmarine screen occupied her time on the day before the invasion. On 1 April, the assault troops stormed the Hagushi beaches on Okinawa; and Staunch settled into the routine of patrols and ASW screening. Until 31 May, she came under frequent air attacks, though most were directed at the larger ships, particularly against the radar pickets. During the night of 16 and 17 May, she picked up a small surface contact on her radar screen and found a large boat pulling a raft. Staunch opened fire on the strange enemy craft, and all but one of the Japanese took to the water. The remaining soldier blew himself up with a hand grenade.
On 31 May, Staunch joined in a practice sweep in preparation for the occupation of Iheya Shima. At 0000 on the following day, she approached the object five, but the operation was called off, and she retired rapidly. On 2 June, she and her sister minesweepers swept the waters around the island, and the marines stormed ashore. Then, after watching a Japanese "Val" splash, the minesweeper cleared the area for
Okinawa. From then until 8 July, she concentrated on an offensive sweep off Sakishima Gunto, known as operation "Zebra," putting into Kerama Retto periodically for fuel, provisions, and availability. On two occasions while at the anchorage, she joined the other ships in fighting off an enemy aircraft or two. On the morning of 8 July, she put to sea and shaped a course to the Philippines and entered San Pedro Bay, Leyte, four days later. Staunch was overhauled while her crew enjoyed liberty.
The minesweeper was still at Leyte in mid-August when Japan's capitulation was announced; but, instead of going home, she got underway on the 25th for Okinawa, reaching Buckner Bay on the 31st. After several days sweeping mines around Okinawa, she headed for Japan. Staunch spent the next three months participating in the extensive postwar sweep of the waters around the Japanese home islands. She swept the area around Nagasaki and Sasebo until 17 September then after two days of availability at Sasebo, she sailed off to sweep the area of the Bungo Suido until the 29th. Between 1 and 21 October, she continued sweeping mines-in between typhoons. She returned to the Bungo Suido on the 30th. In November, Staunch joined the major sweep conducted in the Tsushima Strait. That operation continued into December with Staunch putting into Sasebo periodically for availability. At the completion of that operation, she put into Sasebo for fuel and provisions; then got underway on 11 December for the United States, via Eniwetok and Pearl Harbor.
Staunch reached San Diego on 12 January 1946 and remained there for a month. On 11 February, she headed for the Panama Canal and transited it on the night of 21 and 22 February. She made Galveston Tex., on the 28th and stayed there until 11 April when she moved to Orange, Tex., to join the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. On 7 February 1955, she was redesignated MSF-307. She remained there until 1 April 1967, when her name was struck from the Navy list.
Her hulk was sold on 9 October 1969 to Luria Bros. Co., Inc., for scrapping.
Staunch earned four battle stars during World War
Louisa Adams (1775-1852) was an American first lady (1825-1829) and the wife of John Quincy Adams, a U.S. Congressman and the sixth president of the United States. The first-ever first lady born abroad, she met her husband while he was serving as a U.S. minister in Europe and she accompanied him on all of his diplomatic missions throughout their marriage. Though she was a skilled hostess, she suffered from a series of illnesses and recurring depression, which coupled with the loss of several children, led her to increasingly withdraw from public life while first lady.
The second child of Catherine Nuth, an Englishwoman, and Joshua Johnson, an American merchant, Louisa Catherine Johnson was born in England and spent part of her childhood in France. She was well educated at boarding schools and then via a private tutor, developing an affinity for writing and music. The well-to-do Johnsons often hosted American visitors, including the diplomat John Adams and his son John Quincy, but they may have made a radical lifestyle choice for the time: Documentation indicates the Johnsons were not officially married until 1785, which, if true, makes Louisa the only first lady born out of wedlock.
Then minister to the Netherlands, John Quincy Adams was in London for business in 1795 when he developed a romance with the 20-year-old Louisa. However, the young diplomat was dissuaded from pursuing Catherine by his mother, who felt his marriage to a British woman would damage his political ambitions. After returning to the Netherlands, Adams sent a series of letters in which he alternately professed his devotion to his work and pointed out Louisa’s shortcomings. He finally consented to marriage in 1797, after Louisa’s father offered to pay for passage to his next post in Portugal, though that promise was rendered moot when Adams was reassigned to Prussia.
Louisa was enduring an unhappy political assignment to Russia when Adams was abruptly pulled from the post to negotiate the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. When Adams sent word to his wife to join him in England, Louisa took her 7-year-old son and their servants on a harrowing 2,000-mile journey from St. Petersburg to London in the middle of winter. At one point near Paris, their Russian carriage was stopped by a contingent of hostile Napoleonic troops and camp followers, but Louisa diffused the danger by speaking to them in French and offering a salute of the general. Amazingly, they made it through their six-week expedition to London unscathed.
Soured by the acrimony of the 1824 presidential election and increasing estrangement from her husband, Louisa found consolation in her creative projects as first lady. She began composing a memoir, “Record of a Life, or My Story,” as well as a series of poetry and plays. One thinly veiled autobiographical play named “The Metropolitan Kaleidoscope” featured a temperamental statesman named Lord Sharpley who was more focused on his career than his suffering wife. But Louisa also turned her fire toward critics outside of the family circle, notably penning an article in defense of her husband’s character and her loyalty to the Union during the 1828 election.
Following shakedown training and antisubmarine warfare (ASW) training out of San Pedro and San Diego, California, Staunch was overhauled at Long Beach, California, and then headed for Hawaii at the end of November. She arrived in Pearl Harbor on 10 December, took on supplies and sweep gear, participated in amphibious exercises, and got underway for the Central Pacific on 22 January 1945.
The minesweeper stopped at Eniwetok for fuel and provisions from 3 to 5 February, before continuing on to the Marianas. She conducted ASW patrols for several days and took on fuel and supplies at Tinian then, on 13 February, sailed with Task Unit (TU) 52.3.18 in the screen of USS Terror. Staunch arrived off Iwo Jima early on the 16th and made a sweep of the shoreline. On the 17th and 18th, she served as an antisubmarine picket and bombarded the shore on the eve of the assault. Staunch spent D-Day assisting in the refueling of the smaller minesweepers. All during her stay at Iwo Jima, she joined other minesweepers in screening Terror during nightly retirements to the transport area.
Clarence Henderson grew up in Greensboro, NC.
Henderson was born in the late 1930s in the heavily segregated south. He recalls multiple incidents where white people attacked him or his family, including a robbery attempt when he was just a little boy. In 1960, he was a student at N.C. A&T State University when he decided to sit down at the Woolworth’s lunch counter in 1960 to protest racial segregation that was legal at the time. In later recollections of the events he said, "I was all of 18 years of age, and my parents knew about it after the fact.” He joined the protest on the second day of action. His motives at the time were simple: he wanted to change the system “so all could eat in the same place.” He, along with his fellow protestors, were arrested for their actions.
Looking forward to hearing Clarence Henderson speak tonight at the Republican Convention. He is on the far right of this pic from the 2nd day of the 1960 Woolworths sit in. pic.twitter.com/7qpyyaxOa7
— Kelly Nash (@KellyNashRadio) August 25, 2020
Henderson at a sit-in in 1960.
The ignorance that underpinned empire and slavery still has staunch defenders
I t seems that the government’s war on woke is box office gold, infinite spite fired at an endlessly replenished stream of targets, none of them moving very fast, since they totally weren’t expecting culture secretary Oliver Dowden to even be aware of their work.
But, ask anyone who uses it pejoratively to describe another person what “woke” actually means, and it turns out to have a specific usage. In an academic or museum trustee, it means anyone who talks about decolonising the curriculum, as in the case of the academic whose reappointment to the board of the Museum of Greenwich was reportedly vetoed by Dowden. In the context of youth, it’s the ones on Black Lives Matter protests, unless it’s the ones posing a threat to a slave owner’s statue.
Its purpose is to reframe any anti-racist activism or intellectual inquiry as a threat to either public order or British heritage. It’s tactically rather neat – if you’re unwilling to say “racism is good, actually”, then it’s hard to lodge a heartfelt opposition to anti-racists. Yet if you can interpolate some other dearly held principle (history, public order and, oh go on then, freedom of speech), claim it is under attack and pledge to defend it with all your might, well, here’s the emotional heft you were lacking.
That argument, where it relates to history, rests on a parallel idea, that anti-racist revisionism is seeking to erase the past. If we take down a statue of Cecil Rhodes, we begin an act of conscious forgetting, which corrodes the national identity.
The threat is actually coming from the opposite direction – by ignoring history we are unable to understand the shape of our nations. I’m thinking specifically of three recent works of popular history about colonialism and slavery Nikole Hannah-Jones’s 1619 Project for the New York Times, for which she won a Pulitzer last year (the podcast is incredible) Sathnam Sanghera’s Empireland and Alex Renton’s Blood Legacy, which details his own family’s slave ownership in late 18th-century Tobago. Each work is hauntingly original, and the perspectives different, but certain themes emerge. The first, forensically analysed by Hannah-Jones in the American context, is how slavery and exploitation as systems get into the fabric of all that is woven afterwards, whether that’s modern-day healthcare or the economics of agriculture. “We’re here because you were there”, Sanghera writes, quoting the academic Ambalavaner Sivanandan, collapsing the walls between the past and the present.
Why, though, are those walls so important to a conservative worldview? It is not out of respect for history, or a sense that it’s so fragile it must remain entombed in the shape it was first told. Rather, it is because the story they want to tell is one of discontinuity, which functions as both pardon and silencer. What happened, happened it cannot unhappen it could not happen now. So really, what would be the point evaluating its morality or legitimacy? It’s history as video game: you clear a level. It wasn’t pretty, but now you’re on the next level, and there’s no going back.
Nowhere is this clearer than on matters of character: statues shouldn’t be destroyed, since those great men of the past cannot be judged by our standards. They wouldn’t have been able to apply concepts of universal humanity, because they conceived of other races as sub-species. This was implicitly argued by the German state in an ongoing case against it for the Namibian genocide of 1904-08. “The legal concept of genocide does not apply in this case,” read its motion to dismiss, which left lawyers scratching their heads: it only doesn’t apply if the Herero and Name people aren’t, you know, people.
The problem is, it’s not true: from Renton’s book, which draws on archives of his family’s letters, it is quite plain that slave owners did conceive of enslaved people as humans, and some of them did have a unified theory of what “humane” treatment looked like. What comes across much more strongly than a completely other, unrecognisable worldview is total cognitive dissonance men who could quote you a scripture in the morning about love for all mankind, then put in an insurance claim for 76 slaves lost at sea in the afternoon, without any sense of that as a tragedy, still less of their own culpability. The denaturing agent, here, is money. How do you compartmentalise sentiment and torture? By maintaining a separation between the God-fearing human and the level-headed businessman.
Ignorance has always been a cornerstone of empire and the slave trade: Kerem Nisancioglu, co-author of How the West Came to Rule, points out that at the height of colonialism, the majority of Britons couldn’t reliably name a British territory. The purpose of this ignorance, and the amnesia that is now so ardently protected, is not so much to hide past events as to distance them so much that they are infinitely dispersed. That behaviour was typical of that age, therefore everybody of that period is responsible. The inconvenience of this fresh look at the era is not that it wants to vandalise it but understand it.
یواساس استانچ (ایام-۳۰۷)
یواساس استانچ (ایام-۳۰۷) (به انگلیسی: USS Staunch (AM-307) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۱۸۴ فوت ۶ اینچ (۵۶٫۲۴ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۴ ساخته شد.
|آباندازی:||۵ سپتامبر ۱۹۴۳|
|آغاز کار:||۱۵ فوریه ۱۹۴۴|
|اعزام:||۹ سپتامبر ۱۹۴۴|
|درازا:||۱۸۴ فوت ۶ اینچ (۵۶٫۲۴ متر)|
|پهنا:||۳۳ فوت (۱۰ متر)|
|آبخور:||۹ فوت ۹ اینچ (۲٫۹۷ متر)|
|سرعت:||۱۴٫۸ گره (۲۷٫۴ کیلومتر بر ساعت)|
این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. میتوانید با گسترش آن به ویکیپدیا کمک کنید.
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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!
Television Writer and Producer
In 1948, Serling moved to New York City and entered the work world as a struggling freelance radio writer. In 1955, he branched out into television script writing with the TV business drama Patterns. Patterns earned Serling his first Emmy Award.
Serling&aposs second Emmy win came a year later, with the 1956 production of Requiem for a Heavyweight, starring Jack Palance. During the late 1950s, Serling fought the CBS network when they insisted on editing his controversial scripts. CBS got its way and heavily revised his script about lynching, entitled A Town Has Turned to Dust, and another about corruption in a labor union, called The Rank and File. Instead of continuing to fight inevitable censorship, in 1959 Serling turned from realism to the sci-fi fantasy genre, with the iconic series The Twilight Zone. Not only did Serling write the series, but he was also the face of it, serving as its on-screen narrator. The Twilight Zone ran until 1964 and garnered Serling his third Emmy.
In 1968, Serling co-wrote the screenplay for the original movie version of Planet of the Apes. After a stint of screenwriting, he returned to television writing in 1970.
Serling spent his later career hosting Rod Serling&aposs Night Gallery and teaching screenwriting at Ithaca College. Over the course of his career, Serling wrote an estimated 252 scripts and won a total of six Emmys.
HMS Staunch (1910)
HMS Staunch (1910) was an Acorn class destroyer that served with the Second Destroyer Flotilla with the Grand Fleet in 1914-15 and at Devonport late in 1915, before moving to join the Fifth Destroyer Flotilla in the Mediterranean in December 1915. She was torpedoed and sunk by UC-38 on 11 November 1917 while supporting the British troops during the fighting in Palestine.
The Staunch was laid down by Denny at Dumbarton on 15 January 1910, launched on 29 October 1910 and completed in March 1911.
From 1911-14 the Staunch, along with the entire Acorn class and the Laferoy class destroyer HMS Lark formed the 2nd Destroyer Flotilla, a fully manned flotilla that was part of the 2nd Division of the Home Fleet until 1912, then part of the First Fleet from 1912-1914. At the outbreak of war in 1914 the First Fleet became the Grand Fleet.
At the end of July 1911 the Staunch acted as a tender to the Royal Yacht when the King, Queen, Prince of Wales and Princes Mary visited HMS Hindustan in Cowes Roads.
In July 1914 she was one of twenty destroyers in the Second Flotilla, part of the First Fleet of the Home Fleet, which contained the most modern battleships. The Second Flotilla contained the entire Acorn or H class of destroyers.
First World War
After the outbreak of war in August 1915 the Staunch and the entire class formed the Second Flotilla of the Grand Fleet. By November 1914 they had been joined by the flotilla leader Broke. On 19 February 1915 her sister ship Goldfinch was wrecked, leaving the nineteen survivors in the flotilla. By June 1915 the flotilla contained all nineteen of the Acorn class boats and the M class destroyer HMS Moon.
On 1 July 1915 the Armed Merchant Cruiser Patuca attempted to intercept the Swedish blockade runner SS Oscar II, but during the encounter the two ships collided. The Patuca was able to return to the Clyde, while two tugs and the destroyers Fury and Staunch were sent out to try and get the Oscar II to port. However after two days the damaged merchant ship sank.
The class finally began to split up in the summer of 1915. The first big change came in September 1915, when Acorn, Comet, Fury, Hope, Redpole, Sheldrake and Staunch moved south to Devonport. They were still part of the 2nd Flotilla, but were listed as being on detached service as tenders to Vivid, the shore base at Devonport. Over the next few months most of the rest of the class moved south to Devonport, while most of the first wave of ships to move south went on to the Mediterranean.
On 13 November 1915 Comet, Fury, Redpole and Staunch left Devonport, heading for the Mediterranean.
In January 1916 she was one of three H class destroyers under the command of the Vice-Admiral Commanding, Eastern Mediterranean.
On 8-9 January 1916 the Staunch and the Fury took part in the evacuation of troops from Helles Beach at Gallipoli. Their role was to pick people up from one of the hulks connected to the shore by a bridge, but by the time the two destroyers arrived the bridge was out of use and the troops had to be ferried out in small boats.
In October 1916 she was one of four H class destroyers with the main part of the Fifth Destroyer Flotilla in the Mediterranean Fleet, while another four were posted at Malta.
In late October and early November 1917 the Staunch helped support the British offensive in Palestine, which began with the battle of Beersheba (31 October 1917), before the Turkish lines nearer the coast were broke during the third battle of Gaza (1-2 November 1917). On 30 October the Comet and the Staunch escorted the monitor HMS Raglan as it bombarded Deir Sineid railway station. The British destroyers were briefly replaced by the French destroyers Fauconneau and Hache early in November, but continued to support the attack. However direct naval support for the attack ended after UC-38 managed to get into the naval anchorage off Dier el Belah on 11 November by passing between the shore and the anti-submarine nets, and sank the Staunch and the monitor M.15. Eight men were killed on the Staunch.
By the time she was lost, she had the approved depth charge armament of two throwers and eighteen charges, with the aft gun and the torpedo tubes removed to compensate for the extra weight.
The Staunch was awarded one battle honour, for the Dardanelles in 1915-16
-July 1914-August 1915: Second Flotilla, Grand Fleet
September 1915-November 1915: Second Destroyer Flotilla, Devonport
December 1915-11 November 1917: Fifth Destroyer Flotilla, Mediterranean
Lt-Commander Claude L. Bate: 16 December 1913-October 1914-
A Brief Timeline Of Feminism In America
August 18 marks the 95th anniversary of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, which granted women the right to vote. This day, August 26, is also known as Women's Equality Day. While this is a huge day for both women’s and human rights, there's clearly still so much work to be done. Let's take a quick look at the facts, shall we?
- We make up only 20 percent of the Senate, and even less of Congress
- The U.S. has never had a female vice president, much less president
- An Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution (pushed for by Alice Paul back in 1920) was never ratified
… and the list goes on and on and on.
The ratification of the 19th Amendment was a huge victory, but it addressed only one of the demands presented by early feminists. The questions 95 years later are "Where are we now?" and "Where do we go from here?" In order to understand the answer, we have to know our history. Here is a (very brief) look at the the first three waves of feminism, and where we might be going.
First Wave: Political Movement
We generally mark the beginning of the feminist movement in the United States as 1848, the year of the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls New York. But doing so robs feminism of some of its most important mothers. It is more accurate to say that the first wave was feminism’s political movement, which began long before Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
1630s – Anne Hutchinson challenged the Puritans’ male hegemony by teaching both women and men in her home.
1659 – After Hutchinson’s banishment and death, her friend Mary Dyer took up her cause and was executed for preaching equality of the sexes.
1776 – Abigail Adams wrote a letter to her husband, John Adams, warning him not to leave women’s rights out of the Constitution. “If perticular care and attention is not paid to the Laidies we are determined to foment a Rebelion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation [sic],” she said — an elegant insight that the founding father laughed away.
1782 – Deborah Sampson took her late brother’s name and dressed as a man to fight in the Revolutionary War. She was injured, discovered, and honorably discharged in 1783.
1821 – Emma Hart Willard opened Troy Female Seminary, granting women levels of education on par with what men could receive.
1848 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton (above) and other leaders of the Seneca Falls Convention rewrote the Declaration of Independence into their own Declaration of Sentiments, calling for full rights of citizenship for women, demanding women’s right to keep their own wages and property (ironically, American women at this time were victims of taxation without representation), demanding access to the same education levels, jobs, and wages as men, and demanding the right to vote.
1849 – Women were allowed to practice medicine in the United States, with Elizabeth Blackwell becoming the first woman to receive a medical degree.
1851 – Sojourner Truth (above) delivered her "Ain’t I a Woman" speech at the Ohio Women’s Rights Convention. She, along with Lucretia Mott and Lucy Stone, spoke for both the abolitionist and women’s rights movements. The two movements worked together until the conclusion of the Civil War.
1870 – The passage of the 15th Amendment gave black men the right to vote. Feminists expected women to be included in this amendment. When they weren’t, a schism developed. Some suffragists, led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, felt betrayed by the abolitionists and split off to form their own suffrage movement, focused solely on women’s (consequently, solely white women’s) right to vote. This racial division would last through the first and second waves.
1900–1920 – The second generation of first-wavers, led by Carrie Chapman Catt, began the political campaigns first-wave feminism is most remembered for. At the same time, a radical branch of suffragists, led by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, determined to settle for nothing less than a federal amendment to the Constitution. They picketed the White House, facing repeated beatings, arrests, and deplorable workhouse conditions. Their very public suffering helped turn the nation’s attention and compassion to the vulnerability of women’s positions in society.
1920 – The 19th Amendment finally passed, giving women the right to vote — a great victory for white women. Just as the abolitionists had decided not to back the feminist cause in 1870, white feminists in 1920 decided not to press the cause of black women — most of whom lived in Southern states, which would continue to marginalize them and make it nearly impossible for them to vote for the next 40 years.
Second Wave: Social Movement
Just as abolitionism catalyzed first-wave feminism, the second wave received its initial surge from the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s. The interim years had proven that a political movement wasn’t enough. The de jure rights of race and sex did little de facto. What was needed was a social movement.
Racism and sexism soared after World War II, as America desperately struggled to redefine its identity and reclaim a perceived innocence that years of depression and war had supposedly stripped away. The affluent white male reinforced himself as the pinnacle of society. As a result, far fewer women received college or graduate degrees or pursued skilled jobs than they had in previous decades. African Americans in the South experienced battles over school integration, and intense violence was directed at activists like the Freedom Riders.
Over the next 20 years, the social feminist movement would change society’s views on rape, abortion, and sexual harassment in the workplace. They would ensure that government organizations tasked with protecting women did their jobs. The movement’s slogan was “the personal is political.”
1961 – At the urging of Eleanor Roosevelt, President Kennedy established a Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. The commission revealed that women were not educated to the same level as men, nor did they participate in economics or politics at the same rate as men.
1963 – Betty Friedan’s book The Feminine Mystique described "the problem that had no name" (at least, the problem for straight, middle-class, white women). Friedan wrote about how women were stifled in the home, undereducated, and treated as children. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 passed this year, stating that men and women should receive equal pay for equal work.
1968 – Alice Walker’s first collection of poetry was published. She went on to publish many more works of poetry and short fiction, but is best known for her novels, such as The Color Purple. She, along with Toni Morrison and bell hooks, voiced what it meant (and means) to be a black woman in male-dominated America, overlooked by the white feminist movement.
1969 – A group of 400 feminists protested the Miss America Pageant, drawing global media attention. However, contrary to popular myth, no bras were actually burned.
1971 – Gloria Steinem co-founded Ms. magazine, providing a platform for feminist ideas to reach a wider audience.
1973 – Roe v. Wade, which ruled that states could not ban abortion, changed the landscape in women’s fights for control over their own bodies.
1974 – The Equal Credit Opportunity Act passed, enabling a woman to take out a credit card in her own name, rather than her husband’s.
1983 - Activist and academic Angela Davis publishes Women, Race, and Class, an intersectional look at feminist issues.
In spite of its social success, the second wave broke in the late '70s. The racial division that plagued the first wave remained throughout the second, and expanded from a black/white divide to include divisions along economic lines, between various minorities, and between lesbians and straight women. The internal divisions fractured the larger movement into competing factions, which disillusioned many feminists and society as a whole.
Third Wave: Individual Movement
The 1980s saw a second feminist backlash. Generally, this decade declared itself post-feminist. The daughters of the second-wavers built their own wave as more of a reaction against the second wave than a cohesive movement of its own.
Third-wavers were eager to dissociate from what they viewed as their mothers’ botched legacy. They decided to take back feminism, to redefine it. However, unlike the first and second waves, third-wave feminism never found a cohesive structure. It was deconstructionist in nature. Every woman could redefine feminism in her own way. Instead of a political or a social movement, this new feminism was individual.
1991 – During Senate confirmation hearings for Clarence Thomas for Supreme Court Justice, Anita Hill accused Thomas of sexual harassment. The case quickly gained national attention. Thomas was eventually confirmed, while Hill was largely discredited.
1991 – The punk band Bikini Kill published the “Riot Grrrl Manifesto” and began a radical feminist musical genre that took off around the world, calling out for the empowerment of women’s voices and taking up the issues of violence against women and homophobia.
1992 – The Anita Hill case inspired Rebecca Walker, Alice Walker’s daughter, to publish a call for a new wave of feminism, titled “Becoming the Third Wave.” She summed up the individualist, deconstructionist nature of the movement in the final statement of her article: “I am the Third Wave.” Walker didn’t try to speak for women collectively — she spoke to each woman individually.
1998 – After gaining notoriety for their billboards and posters throughout the previous decade, the Guerrilla Girls staged a protest at the San Jose Museum of Art over its lack of representation of female artists.
Where Are We Headed?
The third wave didn’t end so much as it was overtaken by a new wave of eager, tech-savvy millennials growing up in a post-9/11 society. The Internet has created a digital world that transcends borders and has brought feminists new ways to unite and speak out about oppression and injustice.
Since then, Fourth-Wavers have expanded on the third-wave fight against the portrayal of women in the media (and now online, as well) and brought attention to male domination of the news and entertainment industries — things that clearly shape culture. As the Internet has provided an endless supply of advertisements objectifying women’s bodies and entertainment sites perpetuating unrealistic beauty standards, feminists have fought back using social media, blogs, and websites.
We still have much to accomplish before we can say that we live in a truly egalitarian society, and it won’t be easy. However, if we remember to link our past to our present, with all the new technological tools we have at our disposal, then why can’t the fourth wave finally finish the work our earliest foremothers began?
Don’t let this anniversary pass unnoticed. Let our history inspire us to move forward, bold and unafraid and bolstered by women — both those who have gone before and those who surround us now in our global, digital fourth wave.
Image: Bustle Stock Photo Public Domain, Library of Congress, Wikicommons, Giphy