May 6, 2017 Day107 of the First Year - History

May 6, 2017 Day107 of the First Year - History


May 6, 2017 Day107 of the First Year - History

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        Pageant Age: Move to 29 years old Age Limit (?)

        Miss International pushed their age limits to 25 a couple of years ago, Miss World pushed their age requirements to 27 last year, Miss Universe is confirmed to have moved the maximum age requirement to 28 earlier this year….

        Earlier during the Binibining Pilipinas screenings Miss Earth-Air 2012 Stephany Stephanowitz was removed from the roster of screnees due to her age (Bb Pilipinas only accepts up to ceiling age of 26, Stephany was 27). With this talk of age requirements, I thought it is high time to write about my thoughts on the ceiling age for pageants.

        One of the oldest Miss Universe to win the title was Brook Mahaelani Lee of the US. The Hawaii native was already 27 years old when she won the title in Miami and became one of the most celebrated winners of the pageant’s history. In the recent history of the Miss World pageant, a standing rumor has it that no pageant girl at the age of 25 will ever win the title. One of the youngest to ever win the Miss International title was Melanie Marquez at the age of 15 years old (alleged age). While I have no qualms crowning winners in their 20’s, it is my opinion that the ceiling age for pageants should be pushed to 29 years old on the year that they are competing for the international title. Why is that so?

        It is simply because women who are past 25 years have more maturity and more focus in their careers. Women on those ages have achieved something on their professional and personal lives and have a better understanding of life and the celebrity that follows. They are most probably to treat the duties and responsibilities of the title with utmost respect.
        Miss USA 2015 and Miss Universe 2nd runner up Olivia Jordan sums it all nicely in one statement: No to Ageism.


        2017 New York Yankees Statistics

        Copyright © 2000-2021 Sports Reference LLC. All rights reserved.

        Much of the play-by-play, game results, and transaction information both shown and used to create certain data sets was obtained free of charge from and is copyrighted by RetroSheet.

        Win Expectancy, Run Expectancy, and Leverage Index calculations provided by Tom Tango of InsideTheBook.com, and co-author of The Book: Playing the Percentages in Baseball.

        Total Zone Rating and initial framework for Wins above Replacement calculations provided by Sean Smith.

        Full-year historical Major League statistics provided by Pete Palmer and Gary Gillette of Hidden Game Sports.

        Some defensive statistics Copyright © Baseball Info Solutions, 2010-2021.

        Some high school data is courtesy David McWater.

        Many historical player head shots courtesy of David Davis. Many thanks to him. All images are property the copyright holder and are displayed here for informational purposes only.


        ECU Celebrates Founders’ Day On 107Th-Year Anniversary

        Every mill and factory in the town of Ada blew their steam whistles on March 25, 1909, in celebration of the creation of the East Central State Normal School.

        Oklahoma Governor Charles N. Haskell signed the Ada Normal School bill that day, and 107 years later, this institution of higher learning, now known as East Central University, is still a major part of a thriving community.

        ECU celebrated its beginning with a Founders’ Day on Centennial Plaza Friday as students, faculty, staff, alumni and friends gathered for the event, which featured performances of the Oklahoma State Song, ECU Fight Song and Happy Birthday from members of the ECU Pride of Tigerland Marching Band. Also in attendance were Chickasaw Nation Gov. Bill Anoatubby and State Sen. Susan Paddack.

        “The genesis for this came from Dr. Boomer Appleman (dean of students), who was reading about the early history of ECU. He was impressed by the go-getter attitude and vision of our city (of Ada) fathers,” said ECU President John R. Hargrave. “He came up with idea of acknowledging the date and our plans are to continue having Founders’ Day for years to come. This is a beautiful day to celebrate and I thank everyone who was a part of this.”

        Ada aspired to be a community that offered plenty of opportunities for incoming families and businesses and one way to accomplish that goal was to secure a state-sponsored college.

        Following statehood in 1907, Ada was up against five other larger towns to bid for one of three sites for a normal school. City leaders worked together to plan a strategy to secure a normal school and the Ada promoters agreed to keep a delegation of citizens at the state capital in Guthrie in order to influence the first state legislature.

        The people of Ada worked to raise funds for the delegation by hosting band concerts and dinners while Otis Weaver, editor of The Ada Evening News, used the newspaper to help raise the needed funds for lobbying.

        Competition for a normal school even became heated as a fistfight erupted on the legislative floor between Pontotoc County’s Sen. Reuben Roddie and Sen. J.S. Morris of Booker. However, the first Oklahoma Legislature adjourned without establishing any new normal schools for the state.

        During the second legislative session, approval came for three normal schools to be established in Tahlequah, Durant and Duncan. At the last minute, some of the Ada delegates persuaded a member of the legislature to replace Duncan’s name with Ada’s. The bill eventually made it through both the House and Senate after much additional political maneuvering.


        Mother's Day 2017

        Mother's Day is a holiday celebrated annually as a tribute to all mothers and motherhood. It is celebrated on various dates in many parts of the world. Although the origins of the holiday date back to the times of the ancient Greeks and Romans, the modern form of the celebration of Mother's Day in the United States began in the early 20th century.

        Modern history

        It was first celebrated in 1908 in Grafton, West Virginia, when Anna Jarvis held a memorial for her mother Ann Reeves Jarvis who, in turn, many years earlier had founded Mothers' Day Work Clubs in five cities. Anna Jarvis began a campaign to make the Mother's Day a national holiday and she succeeded in 1914 when the U.S. President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed the second Sunday in May a Mother's Day.

        Mother's Day around the world

        Nowadays Mother's Day (or a similar event) is celebrated in more than 150 countries around the world, although at different dates. Many countries, including the USA, Canada, Australia, Japan and many European countries, celebrate Mother's Day on second Sunday of May. On the other hand, in many African countries it is celebrated on 21 March. To summarize, most of the Mother's Day dates around the world fall in May or in March.

        Interesting facts about Mother's Day

        • Anna Jarvis (woman who founded Mother's Day) believed it became too commercialized by 1920s and fought to have it abolished [1].
        • In the USA, Mother's Day is one of the biggest holidays for phone calls, and Father's Day is the busiest day for collect (reverse charge) calls [2].
        • Typically, 30% less is spend on Father's Day gifts than on Mother's Day gifts [3].
        • Mother's Day is the most popular day of the year to dine out in the United States with almost 40% of consumers doing so [4]. Accordingly, it is also the busiest day of the year for KFC [5].
        • Mother of John and Clarence Anglin, 2 of the 3 men who ever escaped from Alcatraz, received flowers anonymously every Mother's Day until her death in 1978. The interesting thing is her sons were officially reported to have drowned in San Francisco Bay while escaping in 1962 [6].

        References

        • [1] Jonathan Mulinix, The Founder of Mother's Day Later Fought to Have It Abolished.
        • [2] Pallavi Gogoi, Father's Unspectacular Day, Bloomberg.
        • [3] Phil Izzo, Number of the Week: Spending Less on Father’s Day, The Wall Street Journal.
        • [4] Mother's Day Dining Fact Sheet.
        • [5] Chris Fuhrmeister, KFC Is the Mother's Day Destination.
        • [6] June 1962 Alcatraz escape, Wikipedia.

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        Understanding the Global Death Rate: How Many Die Each Day and More Facts

        According to the World Mortality 2017 report published by the United Nations, the number of deaths in 2015 was 56.567 million. This means that an average of 155,224 human deaths occur each day. This also translates to nearly 6,500 deaths per hour, 107 deaths per minute, and about two deaths per second. Based on the same report, approximately 30.97 million deaths occurred in Asia, 10.59 million in Africa, 8.1 million in Europe, 3.7 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2.9 million in North America, and 265,000 in Oceania. Updated numbers can be found here .

        Leading Causes of Death

        In another study published in 2017, the number of deaths was nearly identical to the UN’s report at 56 million deaths. The leading causes of death are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases.

        Cardiovascular diseases ranked first, causing the death of some 17.79 million people worldwide. Far behind at second is cancer with 9.56 million deaths, and respiratory diseases at third with 3.91 million deaths.

        Rounding up the top 10 killers in the world are lower respiratory infections, dementia, digestive diseases, neonatal disorders, diarrheal diseases, diabetes, and liver diseases. Interestingly, deaths due to road accidents worldwide are nearly as high as liver diseases, which is at 1.2 and 1.3 million, respectively.

        Deaths by Age

        Both the UN’s report and the Global Burden of Disease study indicate that fewer people died before the age of 65. In the UN report, 55% of the 56 million deaths were of people aged 65 and above, while those aged 25 to 65 made up only 29% of the deaths. Deaths by people aged five to 25 comprised only 5%. Children aged five and under account for final 11% of the deaths.

        The Global Burden of Disease study on the other hand, found that 49% of the 56 million deaths in 2017 were of people over the age of 70. An estimated 27% of the deaths were of people between 50 to 69 years old, 14% were people between 15 to 49 years old, 1% died between ages five and 14, while some 14% of the deaths were children aged 5 years old and below.

        How Many Die Each Day in the US

        The CDC reports that there were 2,813,503 registered deaths in the US in 2017. This averages out to around 7,700 deaths per day, 321 per hour, and five deaths per minute. Of this 2.8 million deaths, approximately one million were non-Hispanic black males, while 885,000 were non-Hispanic white males. More deaths were also recorded for non-Hispanic black females at 728,000 followed by non-Hispanic white females at 642,000.

        Leading Causes of Death in the US

        The top two leading killers in the US for 2017, according to the CDC, are cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Unlike the UN report, however, the numbers are much closer. Deaths due to cardiovascular diseases in 2017 were 165,000, while cancer killed some 155,000 Americans in the same year. Unintentional injuries were the third leading cause of death in the US with 49,000. Other top causes of death in the country are lower respiratory diseases, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, pneumonia, kidney disease, and suicide.

        Life Expectancy in the US

        According to the CDC, life expectancy at birth for the entire US population was 78.6 years in 2017. Males have a life expectancy of 76.1 years, while the life expectancy for females is 81.1.


        Boeing Knew About 737 Max Sensor Problem Before Plane Crash In Indonesia

        Boeing said on Sunday that it was aware of problems with a key safety indicator in 2017, but it didn't inform airlines or the FAA until after the Lion Air crash a year later. Here, 737 Max jets built for American Airlines (left) and Air Canada are parked at the airport adjacent to a Boeing production facility in Renton, Wash., in April. Elaine Thompson/AP hide caption

        Boeing said on Sunday that it was aware of problems with a key safety indicator in 2017, but it didn't inform airlines or the FAA until after the Lion Air crash a year later. Here, 737 Max jets built for American Airlines (left) and Air Canada are parked at the airport adjacent to a Boeing production facility in Renton, Wash., in April.

        Boeing knew that there was a problem with one of the safety features on its 737 Max planes back in 2017 – well before the Lion Air crash in October 2018 and the Ethiopian Airlines crash in March. But it did not disclose the issue to airlines or safety regulators until after the Lion Air plane crashed off the Indonesian coast, killing all 189 aboard.

        In a statement Sunday, Boeing said its engineers discovered a problem with a key safety indicator within months of Boeing delivering the first 737 Max planes to airlines. The indicator, called an angle of attack disagree alert, is designed to warn pilots if the plane's sensors are transmitting contradictory data about the direction of the plane's nose.

        Boeing intended for the indicator to be standard on the 737 Max, in keeping with the features available on previous generations of 737s. But its engineers discovered that the sensor worked only with a separate, optional safety feature. Boeing said the faulty software was delivered by a vendor, which it didn't name.

        Business

        Boeing CEO Faces Tough Questions On 737 Max Plane's Design

        When it learned of the issue in 2017, Boeing says it conducted a safety review and concluded that the nonworking alert did not affect airplane safety or operation. The review also concluded that the indicator could be decoupled from the optional indicator at the time of a future software update.

        Boeing says its senior leadership wasn't aware of the problem until after the Lion Air crash. Boeing says it discussed the indicator problem at that point with the Federal Aviation Administration — a year after the company knew about the problem. The company then convened another safety review, which concluded once again that the absence of the alert was not a safety issue. It shared the analysis with the FAA.

        Business

        Pilots Split Over FAA Chief's Claims On Boeing 737 Max Training

        The FAA said in a statement that its review board "determined the issue to be 'low risk' and would be required to be a part of Boeing's overall enhancement announced after the Lion Air [crash]. However, Boeing's timely or earlier communication with the operators would have helped to reduce or eliminate possible confusion."

        A spokesperson for Southwest Airlines, the largest operator of the 737 Max, told The Associated Press that Boeing had informed it of the indicator issue in November, following the Lion Air crash. Southwest then added the optional feature so the angle-of-attack disagree indicator would work.

        But only 20% of customers had purchased the optional feature, and neither Lion Air nor Ethiopian Airlines had functioning angle of attack disagree indicators on their 737 Max fleets, The New York Times reports.

        National

        Boeing Scrambles To Restore Faith In Its 737 Max Airplane After Crashes

        If angle of attack sensors indicate the nose of the plane is too high, an automated flight control system on the 737 Max automatically forces the nose of the plane down, as NPR's David Schaper reported in March:

        "Investigators of the Lion Air plane crash . say a faulty sensor fed the system erroneous data, and the system forced the nose of the plane down repeatedly. The pilots may not have known the system even existed and engaged in a futile struggle to regain control of the aircraft."

        Boeing maintains that the 737 Max was safe to fly even without the alert, which it says provides only "supplemental information." But the new disclosure raises questions about how forthright the company has been about issues with the planes.

        "We thought [the disagree light] worked," Jon Weaks, the president of the Southwest Airlines Pilots Association, told the Times. "If they knew it in 2017, why did we get to nearly the end of 2018 until the manual was changed?"

        The 737 Max, the fastest-selling plane in Boeing's history, has been grounded around the world for almost eight weeks. The company is working on a software fix it hopes will get the planes flying again this summer, as it faces congressional scrutiny and lawsuits by family members of those who died in the crashes.


        Minnesota

        Minnesota, cobbled together from land that was part of the original United States, land acquired in the Louisiana Purchase and land acquired from Great Britain in 1818, joined the Union in May, 1858. Minnesota voted exclusively Republican from 1860 through the onset of the Great Depression, except for 1912 when it sided with Progressive candidate (and former Republican) Theodore Roosevelt. From 1932 onward, the state has primarily voted Democratic, last voting Republican during Nixon’s landslide victory in 1972. Outside of Washington, D.C., it is the longest Democratic streak in the country. In 1984, Minnesotans gave homegrown Senator Mondale his only state in the lopsided loss to Ronald Reagan. While the Democratic winning streak grew to 11 straight elections in 2016, Hillary Clinton won by a surprisingly narrow 1.5% over Donald Trump. Joe Biden won by 7% in 2020.

        Minnesota has had 10 electoral votes since the 1964. It was projected to lose one after the 2020 Census, but edged out New York for the 435th congressional district.


        The History of Jamaica

        The history of Jamaica is a rich and vibrant one, which inspires us to move forward as a nation. Our history speaks to experiences of hardships and prosperity and the growth and determination of a people. Jamaica’s history has been poetically composed by Howard Pyle, who states:

        Jamaica, like many another of the West Indian Islands, is like a woman with a history. She has had her experiences and has lived her life rapidly. She has enjoyed a fever of prosperity founded upon those incalculable treasures poured into her lap by the old time buccaneer pirates. She has suffered earthquake, famine, pestilence, fire and death: and she has been the home of cruel merciless slavery, hardly second to that practised by the Spaniards themselves. Other countries have taken centuries to grow from their primitive life through the flower and fruit of prosperity into the seed time of picturesque decrepitude. Jamaica has lived through it all in a few years.

        – Howard Pyle, “Jamaica New and Old” in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, January 1890

        Original Inhabitants

        The original inhabitants of Jamaica are believed to be the Arawaks, also called Tainos. They came from South America 2,500 years ago and named the island Xaymaca, which meant ““land of wood and water”. The Arawaks were a mild and simple people by nature. Physically, they were light brown in colour, short and well-shaped with coarse, black hair. Their faces were broad and their noses flat.

        They grew cassava, sweet potatoes, maize (corn), fruits, vegetables, cotton and tobacco. Tobacco was grown on a large scale as smoking was their most popular pastime.
        They built their villages all over the island but most of them settled on the coasts and near rivers as they fished to get food. Fish was also a major part of their diet.

        The Arawaks led quiet and peaceful lives until they were destroyed by the Spaniards some years after Christopher Columbus discovered the island in 1494.

        The Discovery of Jamaica

        On May 5, 1494 Christopher Columbus, the European explorer, who sailed west to get to the East Indies and came upon the region now called the West Indies, landed in Jamaica. This occurred on his second voyage to the West Indies. Columbus had heard about Jamaica, then called Xaymaca, from the Cubans who described it as “the land of blessed gold”. Columbus was soon to find out that there was no gold in Jamaica.

        On arrival at St Ann’s Bay, Columbus found the Arawak Indians inhabiting the island. Initially, Columbus thought these Indians were hostile, as they attacked his men when they tried to land on the island. As he was determined to annex the island in the name of the king and queen of Spain, he was not deterred. Columbus also needed wood and water and a chance to repair his vessels. He sailed down the coast and docked at Discovery Bay. The Arawaks there were also hostile to the Spaniards. Their attitudes changed however, when they were attacked by a dog from one of the Spanish ships and Columbus’ cross-bow men. Some of the Arawaks were killed and wounded in this attack. Columbus was then able to land and claim the island.

        The Spaniards, when they came, tortured and killed the Arawaks to get their land. They were so overworked and ill-treated that within a short time they had all died. The process was aided by the introduction of European diseases to which the Arawaks had little or no resistance.

        The island remained poor under Spanish rule as few Spaniards settled here. Jamaica served mainly as a supply base: food, men, arms and horse were shipped here to help in conquering the American mainland.

        Fifteen years later in 1509, after their first visit to the island, the first Spanish colonists came here under the Spanish governor Juan de Esquivel. They first settled in the St. Ann’s Bay area. The first town was called New Seville or Sevilla la Nueva.

        Towns were little more than settlements. The only town that was developed was Spanish Town, the old capital of Jamaica, then called St. Jago de la Vega. It was the centre of government and trade and had many churches and convents.

        The little attention the colony received from Spain soon led to a major reason for internal strife. This contributed to the weakening of the colony in the last years of Spanish occupation. The governors were not getting proper support from home and quarrels with church authorities undermined their control. Frequent attacks by pirates also contributed to the colony’s woes.

        The English Attack

        On May 10, 1655, Admiral William Penn and General Robert Venables led a successful attack on Jamaica. The Spaniards surrendered to the English, freed their slaves and then fled to Cuba. It was this set of freed slaves and their descendants who became known as the Maroons.

        The early period of English settlement in Jamaica, drew much attention to the buccaneers based at Port Royal. Buccaneering had begun on the islands of Tortuga and Hispaniola. They were a wild, rough and ruthless set of sea rovers. They took their loot of gold, silver and jewels to Port Royal.

        Port Royal prior to this time was an insignificant town in Jamaica. Under the buccaneers’ leadership the town, within a decade and a half, grew to become known as one of the “wealthiest and wickedest city in the world”.

        The greatest buccaneer captain of all was Henry Morgan. He started out as a pirate and later became a privateer. Morgan mercilessly raided Spanish fleet and colonies. He kept the Spaniards busy defending their coasts that they had little time to attack Jamaica. Morgan was knighted by king Charles II of England and was appointed Lieutenant governor of Jamaica in 1673. Morgan died in 1688.

        A violent earthquake destroyed Port Royal on June 7, 1692. The survivors of the earthquake who re-settled in Kingston abandoned the Port. Port Royal became an important naval base in the eighteenth century.

        The Slave Trade

        The English settlers concerned themselves with growing crops that could easily be sold in England. Tobacco, indigo and cocoa soon gave way to sugar which became the main crop for the island.
        The sugar industry grew so rapidly that the 57 sugar estates in the island in 1673 grew to nearly 430 by 1739.

        Enslaved Africans filled the large labour force required for the industry. The colonists were impressed with the performance and endurance of the Africans, as well as the fact that African labour was cheaper and more promising. They continued to ship Africans to the West Indies to be sold to planters who forced them to work on sugar plantations.

        The slave trade became a popular and profitable venture for the colonists. In fact the transportation of slaves became such a regular affair that the journey from Africa to the West Indies became known as the ‘Middle Passage’. The voyage was so named because the journey of a British slaver was 3-sided, starting from England with trade goods, to Africa where these were exchanged for slaves. Afterwards, the journey continued to the West Indies where the slaves were landed and sugar, rum and molasses taken aboard for the final leg of the journey back to England.

        The slaves, however, were unhappy with their status, so they rebelled whenever they could. Many of them were successful in running away from the plantations and joining the Maroons in the almost inaccessible mountains.

        Several slave rebellions stand out in Jamaica’s history for example, the Easter Rebellion of 1760 led by Tacky and the Christmas Rebellion of 1831 which began on the Kensington Estate in St. James, led by Sam Sharpe. He has since been named a National Hero.

        The Maroons also had several wars against the English. In 1739 and 1740 after two major Maroon Wars, treaties were signed with the British. In the treaty of 1740, they were given land and rights as free men. In return they were to stop fighting and help to recapture run-away slaves. This treaty resulted in a rift among the Maroons as they did not all agree that they should return run-away slaves to the plantations.

        The frequent slave rebellions in the Caribbean was one factor that led to the abolition of the slave trade and slavery. Other factors included the work of humanitarians who were concerned about the slaves’ well-being. Humanitarian groups such as the Quakers publicly protested against slavery and the slave trade. They formed an anti slavery committee which was joined by supporters such as Granville Sharp, James Ramsay, Thomas Clarkson and later on, William Wilberforce.

        On January 1, 1808 the Abolition Bill was passed. Trading in African slaves was declared to be “utterly abolished, prohibited and declared to be unlawful”. Emancipation and apprenticeship came into effect in 1834 and full freedom was granted in 1838.

        The immediate post slavery days were very difficult for the poorer classes. Though most of the English planters had left the islands and new owners were running the plantations, the old oligarchic system still remained. The will of the masses was not deemed important and hence ignored. To add fuel to the already burning flame, the American Civil War resulted in supplies being cut off from the island. A severe drought was also in progress and most crops were ruined.

        In October 1865, an uprising in St. Thomas, called the Morant Bay Rebellion, was led by Paul Bogle. Bogle and his men stormed the Morant Bay Courthouse while it was in session. A number of white people was killed including the custos of the parish. The rebellion was put down by the Governor, Edward John Eyre. More than 430 people were executed or shot, hundreds more flogged and 1,000 dwellings destroyed.

        Paul Bogle and George William Gordon, now National Heroes, were hanged. George Gordon was a prominent coloured legislator who was sympathetic to the problems of the poor people and was blamed for the trouble caused by the masses.

        Eyre was subsequently recalled to England but not before exchanging the ancient Constitution for the Crown Colony system. The succeeding years saw the island’s recovery and development – social, constitutional and economic, and its evolution into a sovereign state.

        Education, health, and social services were greatly improved. A proper island-wide savings back system was organised. Roads, bridges and railways (railways became government owned in 1845) were built and cable communication with Europe established (1859). The island’s capital was moved from Spanish Town to Kingston (1872).

        The 1930s saw Jamaica heading towards another crisis. The contributing factors were discontent at the slow pace of political advance. For example, the distress caused by a world-wide economic depression, the ruin of the banana industry by the Panama industry Disease, falling sugar prices, growing unemployment aggravated by the curtailment of migration opportunities and a steeply rising population growth rate. In 1938 things came to a head with widespread violence and rioting.

        Out of these disturbances came the formation of the first labour unions and the formation of the two major political parties.
        These were the Bustamante industrial Trade Union (BITU) named after the founder, Sir Alexander Bustamante. He was also the founder and leader of the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP), the political party affiliated with the BITU. Norman Manley was the founder of the National Workers’ union and the political party the People’s National Party (PNP).

        Both Sir Alexander Bustamante and Norman Manley were instrumental in Jamaica’s move towards self-government. The first general elections under Universal Adult Suffrage was held in December 1944.

        In 1958, Jamaica and ten (10) other Caribbean countries formed the Federation of the West Indies. The concept of Caribbean unity was soon abandoned in 1961 when Jamaicans voted against the Federation of the West Indies.

        On August 6, 1962, Jamaica was granted its independence from England. Jamaica now has its own constitution which sets out the laws by which the people are governed. The constitution provides for the freedom, equality and justice for all who dwell in the country.

        The Jamaican Constitution

        The Jamaican Constitution 1962 is the most fundamental legal document in the country, guaranteeing the freedom, rights and privileges of every Jamaican citizen. The Constitution reflects the country’s independence as a nation state and, to this day, remains the cornerstone of the island’s legal systems and institutions.

        The Constitution took effect on August 6,1962 when Jamaica gained political independence from Britain, after more than 300 years of British colonial rule. While being the first constitution for the politically independent nation, it was not the first legal framework for the island…Read More


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