Bainbridge II DD- 1 - History

Bainbridge II DD- 1 - History

Bainbridge II

(DD-1: dp. 420, 1. 250', b. 23'7", dr. fi'6", s. 29 k., cpl
75; a. 2 3", 2 18" TT.; cl. Bainbridge)

The second Bainbridge (Destroyer No. 1) was launched 27 August 1901 by Neafie and Levy, Ship and Engine Building Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; sponsored by Mrs. Bertram Greene, great-granddaughter of Commodore Bainbridge; placed in reserve commission at Philadelphia 24 November 1902 Lieutenant G. W. Williams in command, towed to Norfolk; and placed in full commission 12 February 1903.

Bainbridge departed Key West, Fla., 23 December 1903 end sailed via the Suez Canal to the Philippine Islands, arriving in Cavite 14 April 1904. Between 1904 and 1917 she served with the 1st Torpedo Flotilla, Asiatic Fleet, except for two brief period (17 January 1907-24 April 1908 and 24 April 1912 April 1913) when she was out of commission.

On 1 August 1917 she departed Cavite for Port Said, Egypt, where she Joined Squadron 2, U. S. Patrol Force, 25 September 1917. Bainbridge served on patrol and convoy duty until 15 July 1918 when she departed for the United States. She arrived at Charleston, S. C., 3 August 1918 and participated with the fleet in activities along the Atlantic coast until 3 July 1919 when she was decommissioned at Philadelphia. She was sold 3 January 1920.


Dallas was launched on 31 May 1919 by Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company sponsored by Miss W. D. Strong, great granddaughter of Captain Dallas and commissioned on 29 October 1920 with Lieutenant E. H. Roach in temporary command. Lieutenant A. R. Early assumed command on 10 November 1920. [1]

Pre-World War II Edit

Dallas operated on the United States East Coast, participating in exercises and maneuvers from her base at Charleston, South Carolina. She arrived at Philadelphia on 12 April 1922 and was decommissioned there on 26 June.

Recommissioned on 14 April 1925, Dallas served with various destroyer squadrons, acting as flagship for Squadrons 9, 7, and 1. Until 1931, she cruised along the U.S. East Coast and in the Caribbean, engaging in gunnery exercises, battle torpedo practice, fleet maneuvers, and fleet problems participating in joint United States Army-U.S. Navy exercises training members of the United States Naval Reserve and serving as experimental ship at the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, Rhode Island. [1]

On 9 January 1932, Dallas departed Charleston, South Carolina, bound for the United States West Coast, arriving at San Diego, California, on 21 March 1932. She operated along the U.S. West Coast and in the Hawaiian Islands, conducting force practice and tactical exercises and participating in combined fleet exercises. [1]

Dallas departed San Diego on 9 April 1934 for the Presidential Review of the Fleet in June 1934 at New York City and tactical exercises on the U.S. East Coast and in the Caribbean. Returning to San Diego on 9 November 1934, Dallas continued to operate in the Pacific Ocean until 1938, cruising to Hawaii and Alaska. [1]

Dallas operated in the Panama Canal Zone area between May and November 1938, visiting ports of the Republic of Panama rendering service to Submarine Squadron 3 and making a good-will call at Buenaventura, Colombia. On 17 November 1938 she weighed anchor for the U.S. East Coast, arriving at Philadelphia on 23 November 1938. She again was placed out of commission on 23 March 1939. [1]

World War II Edit

With the outbreak of World War II in Europe on 1 September 1939, Dallas was recommissioned on 25 September 1939 and assigned to the United States Atlantic Fleet, serving as flagship for Destroyer Squadrons 41 and 30. She patrolled along the U.S. East Coast and conducted training exercises until 7 July 1941, when she got underway for Naval Station Argentia in the Dominion of Newfoundland, where she arrived on 11 July 1941. Between 11 July 1941 and 10 March 1942 she patrolled between Argentia and Halifax, Nova Scotia, and escorted convoys to Reykjavík, Iceland, and Derry, Northern Ireland. [1]

From 1 April 1942 to 3 October, Dallas escorted coastal shipping from New York and Norfolk, Virginia to Florida, Texas, Cuba, Bermuda, and ports in the Caribbean. On 25 October she cleared Norfolk to rendezvous with Task Force 34 bound for the Operation Torch amphibious landings in North Africa. Dallas was to carry a U.S. Army Raider battalion, and land them up the narrow, shallow, obstructed Sebou River to take a strategic airfield near Port Lyautey, French Morocco. On 10 November 1942 she began her run up the river under the guidance of Rene Malevergne, a civilian pilot who would later become the first foreign civilian to receive the Navy Cross. Under cannon and small arms fire throughout her voyage up the river, she plowed her way through mud and shallow water, narrowly missing many sunken ships and other obstructions, and sliced through a cable crossing the river to land her troops safely just off the airfield. Her outstanding success in completing this mission with its many unexpected complications won her the Presidential Unit Citation. On 15 November 1942, she departed the African coast for Boston, Massachusetts, arriving there 26 November 1942. [1]

Dallas had convoy duty between Norfolk, New York, and New London, Connecticut — also making one voyage to Gibraltar from 3 March to 14 April 1943 — until 9 May 1943, when she departed Norfolk for Oran, Algeria, arriving there on 23 May 1943. She patrolled off the North African coast, then on 9 July 1943 joined Task Force 81 for screening duty during the Battle of Gela from 10 to 12 July during Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily. [2] She returned to convoy and patrol duties until 7 September 1943, when she joined the escort for a convoy bound for the amphibious landings on the mainland of Italyin Operation Avalanche. Dallas screened the transport group during the landings at Salerno on 9 September 1943, and joined a southbound convoy on 11 September 1943, rescuing two downed British airmen on her way to Oran. She escorted reinforcements to Salerno, then served on escort and patrol in the Mediterranean until 11 December 1943, when she got underway for the U.S. East Coast, arriving at Philadelphia on 24 December 1943. [1]

Following a thorough overhaul at Charleston, South Carolina, Dallas escorted two convoys to North Africa between 23 February and 9 June 1944. On the second voyage, the escorts came under attack by enemy torpedo planes on 11 May 1944, but successfully defended the convoy Dallas shot down at least one plane, and damaged others. She served on the U.S. East Coast on various training and convoy assignments. On 31 March 1945, her name was changed to Alexander Dallas to avoid confusion with the planned heavy cruiser USS Dallas (CA-150) , named after Dallas, Texas, rather than Alexander J. Dallas. [1]

Arriving at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 7 June 1945, Alexander Dallas was decommissioned there on 28 July 1945. Stricken from the Navy Register on 13 August 1945, she was sold on 30 November 1945 to the Boston Metals Company of Baltimore, Maryland, for scrapping for US$8,700.00. [1]

Convoy Escort Group Dates Notes
HX 150 17–25 Sep 1941 [3] from Newfoundland to Iceland prior to US declaration of war
ON 22 7–15 Oct 1941 [4] from Iceland to Newfoundland prior to US declaration of war
HX 157 30 Oct-8 Nov 1941 [3] from Newfoundland to Iceland prior to US declaration of war
ON 35 15–27 Nov 1941 [4] from Iceland to Newfoundland prior to US declaration of war
HX 164 10–19 Dec 1941 [3] from Newfoundland to Iceland
ON 49 27 Dec 1941-5 Jan 1942 [4] from Iceland to Newfoundland
HX 171 22–30 Jan 1942 [3] from Newfoundland to Iceland
ON 63 7–13 Feb 1942 [4] from Iceland to Newfoundland

In addition to her Presidential Unit Citation, Dallas received four battle stars for World War II service. [1]

Dallas′s ship's bell is displayed at Naval Operational Support Center Fort Worth at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth in Fort Worth, Texas.


Bainbridge II DD- 1 - History

Gleaves-class destroyer USS Buchanan (DD 484) in the South Pacific, 3 August 1942.

The torpedo was the destroyer&rsquos initial raison d&rsquoêtre. In 1864, Lt. William B. Cushing, USN attacked and sank the Confederate ironclad Albemarle from a small steam launch using an explosive device mounted on a long pole&mdasha &ldquospar torpedo&rdquo&mdashwhich he detonated under water. Two years later in Austria, British engineer Robert Whitehead developed the first compressed air-propelled self-steering &ldquoautomotive&rdquo torpedo, capable of perhaps 6&ndash8 knots over 200&ndash400 yards&mdashthe forerunner of the modern torpedo. Navies around the world quickly perceived the threat to the battle line that such a device would represent if delivered by a small, fast boat before the end of the 19th century, many began building &ldquotorpedo boats&rdquo such as the US Navy&rsquos Cushing class.

The United States was an emerging naval power as the 20th century began, operating not only off its own coasts but also from bases elsewhere around the world to protect its far-flung territories. To screen its fleet, it needed escorts fast and seaworthy enough to deal with the torpedo boat threat and also possessed of a large cruising radius.

The &ldquotorpedo boat destroyers&rdquo of the Bainbridge class mounted two torpedo tubes and two 3-inch guns. Commissioned in 1902, they were 400-ton coal-burners with reciprocating steam engines that occupied most of their internal spaces. Over the next fourteen years, the United States commissioned 68 such first-generation &ldquodestroyers,&rdquo which evolved in size and armament to 1,000-ton oil-fired steam turbine-driven ships&mdashthe navy&rsquos new standard battle line escort and torpedo attack ships.

Second-generation destroyer USS McFarland (DD 237).

Just before it entered World War I, the US Navy began mass producing destroyers, eventually laying keels for 273 Caldwell-, Wickes- and Clemson-class &ldquoflush deckers.&rdquo These second-generation ships mounted twelve torpedo tubes, four 4-inch guns, a single 3-inch anti-aircraft gun and some light machine guns on a 1,190-ton, 314-foot hull. Only a few were placed in commission in time before the end of the war, but all were delivered by September 1922. Although they proved reliable in service, they lacked a large cruising radius and were much more numerous than the navy needed in peacetime, so more than half were soon mothballed while development funding was diverted elsewhere.

In 1922, a Conference on the Limitation of Armament produced a Treaty Between the United States of America, the British Empire, France, Italy, and Japan, which called for a freeze in the size and composition of major navies around the world, but did not regulate destroyers. With its continuing surplus of flush-deckers, the US abstained while all other signatory countries began building new, larger models. Japan, in particular, quickly developed its first &ldquospecial type&rdquo destroyers, the Fubuki class of 1923, which displaced 1,750 tons on a 378-foot hull with six 5-inch guns and nine 24-inch torpedo tubes. These ships caught other navies by surprise when they began to appear in 1928 with their long, narrow hulls and extremely low silhouettes. Their 49-knot &ldquoLong Lance&rdquo torpedoes had an unsuspected 11-mile range and packed a 1,000-lb. warhead. With reserve torpedoes that could be reloaded during battle, they were the outstanding torpedo attack destroyers of the pre-radar era. By the beginning of World War II, Japan had 54 of them (110 destroyers total) in commission and more on the way.

With the design came technologies and tactics. While the US Navy declined to develop its poor torpedoes and actually removed them from its cruisers, Japanese destroyers and cruisers carried excellent torpedoes&mdashreliable, fast, long-range and carrying a large explosive charge. As night fighting provides the greatest opportunity for success in short-range fighting where torpedoes can be most effective, the Japanese navy evolved excellent means of detection, including superior binoculars, and then drilled in night combat.

The Fubukis had a weakness. So much was packed into their long, narrow hulls that they tended to be top heavy. Even after modification, little margin was left for an increased anti-aircraft battery.

IJN Amagiri (&ldquoMisty Rain&rdquo), completed in 1930, was the 15th ship of the Fubuki class. She was the ship that Nicholas and Radford faced at Kula Gulf in the early morning of 6 July 1943. Four weeks later, on 2 August, she was also the ship that rammed and sank PT 109, Lt. John F. Kennedy commanding, and on 25 November, she was one of only two destroyers that escaped destruction by DesRon 23 at the Battle of Cape St. George. She was sunk by a mine south of Borneo 23 April 1944.

Meanwhile in 1930, a new naval arms limitation conference was convened in London. The resulting International Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armament defined total destroyer tonnage, established the two categories of destroyer and destroyer leader, and set the maximum tonnage of both categories and the allowable ratio of ships between them. As published in Ship&rsquos Data for U.S. Naval Vessels, 1 July 1931, destroyers were defined as &ldquosurface vessels of war the Standard Displacement (S.D.) of which does not exceed 1,850 tons and with a gun not above 5.1-inch caliber.&rdquo While the &ldquototal completed tonnage not to be exceeded on December 31, 1936&rdquo was 150,000 tons S.D., however, &ldquonot more than 16 per cent of the allowed tonnage &hellip shall be employed in vessels over 1,500 tons S.D.&rdquo

As these new, higher limits rendered the US&rsquos 225 remaining four-stackers obsolete, the General Board moved quickly to begin replacing them. Considering Japan a likely adversary, it required ships that that could carry large quantities of fuel, supplies and ammunition far from home bases. The new designs also incorporated technological advances that, in some respects, leapfrogged those of other navies. Progress in naval aviation prompted the US (and also Japan) to consider a new dual-purpose main armament for anti-aircraft defense. The United States&rsquo response was the 5-inch/38-caliber gun, which was powered and could fire rapidly enough to target aircraft. It was controlled by a central &ldquodirector,&rdquo which could determine target range, direction, and speed and aim all guns by remote control, taking into account the course, speed, and motion of the ship. It became one of the finest weapons of its time.

Destroyer construction resumed in 1932, Over the next seven years, the US built several third-generation destroyer classes, collectively the &ldquo1,500-tonners,&rdquo all of which featured this new 5-inch gun on a 340-to-350-foot high-forecastle hull that could exceed 35 knots. With low freeboard aft, these were smart-looking ships&mdashespecially in their pre-war light gray.

Unfortunately, they were also top-heavy so weight-saving measures were required. In the two-stack Farragut (8 ships) and Mahan (18) classes, five 5-inch guns were initially attempted, but most of these were mounted without protection other than spray shields on the forward guns. Their instability soon caused the main batteries on these ships to be reduced to four guns. The following Gridley (4), Bagley (8), and Benham (10) classes were designed to carry only four 5-inch guns from the outset, while the torpedo battery was increased to eight tubes mounted in the waist on each side (sixteen total) and the boiler uptakes were trunked together into a single stack for an additional reduction in topside weight.

Third-generation destroyer USS Farragut (DD 348) as modified to reduce topweight.

Concurrently, the US built 1,850-ton leaders as permitted by treaty&mdasheight Porter class (with two stacks) and five Somers class (with one stack). These also mounted 5-inch guns but in single-purpose twin mounts, with neither the elevation nor the ability to train rapidly enough for anti-aircraft defense.

Third-generation destroyer
USS Sims (DD 409).

Superficially, the Sims class (12) looked more modern than the Benhams thanks to a streamlined pilothouse and rounded sheer strake forward&mdashattempts to reduce windage&mdashand they introduced the advanced Mk 37 gun director. As in the Farraguts, twelve torpedo tubes and five 5-inch guns were again attemped.

The fourth-generation Benson (30) and the concurrently-designed Gleaves (66, also known as the Livermore) classes were similar in appearance to the Sims class, but returned to a two-stack layout, reflecting a &ldquosplit&rdquo powerplant, in which two fire rooms alternated with two engine rooms for improved survivablity in case of a torpedo hit.

In all these classes, however, stability problems persisted. Solutions for reduced topweight ranged from the reduction of one 5-inch mount (Farragut, Porter, Mahan, Somers, Sims, Benson and Gleaves classes) and the substitution of canvas-topped gunhouses to the removal of anchors and other equipment. Beginning with Bristol (DD 453), all new construction reverted to four 5-inchers.

US Navy destroyers and conversions in commission during World War II, 7 December 1941&ndash2 September 1945: 287 &ldquobig&rdquo (i.e., more than 2,000-ton) Fletcher-, Allen M. Sumner- and Gearing-class destroyers and 287 ships of earlier classes.

But something bigger and more balanced was on the way. In late 1939, after war broke out in Europe, the US Navy had begun evaluating sketches for a five-gun ship that could meet all its requirements without stability problems&mdashits first destroyer design since World War I unconstrained by treaty limitations. Because of both their sheer numbers and their advanced design, the 175 ships of this new 2,100-ton Fletcher class soon emerged as the standard fleet destroyers of the Pacific war. These were joined before the war ended by 112 ships of derivative design&mdash67 Allen M. Sumner-class 2,200-tonners, mounting six 5-inch guns in three twin gunhouses on a slightly widened hull, and 45 Gearing-class &ldquolong hull&rdquo 2,200-tonners on a slightly lengthened one. Collectively, these &ldquobig&rdquo destroyers emerged as the most successful destroyer designs of World War II.


Bainbridge II DD- 1 - History

The JOHN PAUL JONES DDG-32 was one of 4 Forest Sherman DD-931 class ships to be converted into a guided missile destroyers, Originally it was planed to convert all of the Sherman class ships into DDG's, but the high cost and the then limited capability of the Tarter missile system kept this down to just 4 ships being converted by the time the program was cancelled. These ships served well into the 1980's and the John Paul Jones and Parsons DDG-33 were used as a target ships for several years before being sunk in SINKEX This hull has the shaft exits and strut locations marked into the hull, and comes with a set of arrangement plans.

Package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included. Set Price NL $ --.--

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 15B USS Morton DD-948 DD-931 1/96 52 1/4" 5 5/8" $ 189.00

The USS MORTON was one of the Forest Sherman DD-931 class ships that was converted to an ASW destroyer, these ships had their #2 5" gun mount replaced by an Asroc anti submarine rocket launcher as well as having their 3" twin gun mounts removed. Due to the increasing Soviet submarine threat, the US Navy started converting several destroyers of the Fletcher, Sumner and Gearing classes into specialized ASW ships and redesignated them into DDE's, as these ships got older the Navy started looking more at its larger destroyers that had limited ASW capability and made up plans to convert all of the ships of the Sherman class that had not been slated for DDG upgrades This hull has the shaft and strut locations marked out in the hull and comes with general arrangement plans.

DD-948 SET This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included. NL $ --.--

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 16 USS Spruance DD-963 1/96 70 3/8" 7 1/4" $ 399.00

The 31 ships of the Spruance class are the largest destroyers built by any navy to date, and the first class of US Navy ships to employ Gas Turbine propulsion, which gives them a top speed, according to the Navy, over "over 30 knots". Several ships of this class have been modified with a Mk 41 missile launching system forward in place of the ASROC launcher and magazine. They have also been modified with radar and mast improvements, notably the USS Radford. Several have also been decommissioned at this time. Our hull features the large bow mounted sonar dome, shaft exits and strut locations molded in as well as rudder locations. It also comes with a set of plans that shows some of the various configurations that these ships have gone through.

Special Note : When you order this hull, we will send out our DD-963/CG-47 hull, which features a raised bulwark forward. The modeler will need to remove this bulwark to make a DD-963. This is fairly easily accomplished in a variety of ways, including cutting with a dremel tool and filing to the deck height.

DD-963 Set: This package includes the hull, plans, fittings and weapons sets that we offer. Price $ 760.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included.

Special Shipping : This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-2 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 99.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. Many views, including overhead shots are outstanding onboard details.

Electronic Greyhounds: The Spruance-Class Destroyers by Michael C. Potter - a very good reference for Spruance and Ticonderoga class ships of the US Navy.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D16A USS Merrill DD-976 1/96 70 3/8" 7 1/4" $ 399.00

Several ships of the SPRUANCE class were modified to carry a pair of Armored Box Launchers (ABL) for Tomahawk missiles forward alongside the Asroc launcher. This hull features the large bow mounted sonar dome, shaft exits & strut locations and the rudder locations molded in, and comes with a set of arrangement plans that show some of the various configurations these ships have gone through.

NOTE: When you order a DD-963 hull, we will ship a CG-47 hull for this. The modeler needs to remove the bulwark only, to make a DD-963 model

Addition of the DD-976 as D16A, this version has the Tomahawk launchers etc.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. Many views, including overhead shots are outstanding onboard details.

Special Shipping : This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-2 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 99.00.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D16A USS Fife DD-963 1/96 70 3/8" 7 1/4" $ 399.00

The USS Fife represents the improvements and upgrades that the Spruance class destroyers had gone through over the last 20 years of their service. This includes the removal of the Asroc and NATO Sea Sparrow launchers And their replacement with Vertical Launch systems, these changes have greatly improved the capabilities of these ships and has brought them up to Guided Missile Destroyer status but with out the new hull number designation. The Spruance's were refitted with new radar and mast improvements on a regular basis during their service lives. This hull features the large bow mounted sonar dome, shaft exits & strut locations and the rudder locations molded in, and comes with a set of arrangement plans that show some of the various configurations these ships have gone through.

NOTE: When you order a DD-963 hull, we will ship a CG-47 hull for this. The modeler needs to remove the bulwark only, to make a DD-963 Class model.

DD-963 SET AS MODERNIZED This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Please note this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials not included.

DD-963 Modernized Set $ 715.00

Special Shipping : This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-2 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 99.00.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. Many views, including overhead shots are outstanding onboard details.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 17 USS Kidd DDG-993 1/96 70 3/8" 7 1/4" $ 399.00

The four ships of the Kidd class were originally ordered for the Iranian Navy by the Shah of Iran, but upon the fall of his government were seized by the US before completion. The design of these ships, originally to be a class of 6, closely followed that of the Spruance class from which they were based upon. With improved sensors, and Mk 26 missile launchers these were very powerful warships indeed. All have been decommissioned and await their fates. Our hull features the large bow mounted sonar dome, shaft exits and strut locations molded in as well as rudder locations. It also comes with a set of plans.

Special Note : When you order this hull, we will send out our DD-963/CG-47 hull, which features a raised bulwark forward. The modeler will need to remove this bulwark to make a DDG-993. This is fairly easily accomplished in a variety of ways, including cutting with a dremel tool and filing to the deck height.

DDG-993 set: This package includes the hull, plans and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Price: $ 816.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping : This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-2 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 99.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 18 USS Charles F. Adams DDG-2 1/96 53 15/16" 6" $ 219.00

The CHARLES F. ADAMS guided missile destroyers were built in the 1950's as the first US Navy DD class to carry a guided missile launcher. There were 18 of these ships built in two groups, the first group through DDG 14 had a twin arm tartar missile launcher mounted at the aft end of the superstructure while the second group DDG-15 through DDG-I9 a early MK-13 arm launcher instead, which was more reliable.

This hull has the shaft exits and strut locations marked in and comes with a set of arrangement plans for the USS BERKELEY DDG-15.

DDG-13 set: This package includes the hull, plans and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and metal fittings.

DDG 15 set: This package includes the hull, plans and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and metal fittings.

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 19 USS Waddell DDG-24 1/96 55 1/96 6" $ 239.00

The USS WADDELL DDG-24 was the last ship of the improved C.F. Adams class built during the mid 1960's . All of these ships have now been decommissioned and have either been laid up for scrapping or given to foreign navies: The ships of the three groups of this class have been the mainstay in escorting the US Navy's carrier battle groups for over three decades. This hull is for the last five ships of the DDG-2 class (DDG-20, DDG-21, DDG-22, DDG-23 and DDG-24) only, which are slightly longer, a bow mounted sonar dome and a higher swept focsle deck along with several other improvements. Our DDG-24 hull has the bow mounted sonar dome, shaft exits and strut locations molded in, and comes with a set of general arrangement plans.

DDG 24 set: This package includes the hull, plans and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and metal fittings.

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 69.00.

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 20 USS Coontz DLG 6 and DDG - 40 DLG-6 1/96 64 1/16" 6 9/16" $ 239.00

These ships were built during mid 1960's as large guided missile leaders. The primary role of these ships was to provide anti-air and anti missile defenses for the carrier task forces. The Coontz class ships were the smallest DLG ships built by the US Navy and in 1975 when the navy change its ship type designations, these ships were reclassified as Guided Destroyers ( DDG-36) class. All of these ships have been decommissioned now and some are being considered for sale to foreign navies. This hull has the shaft exits and strut locations marked in.. A set of arrangement plans for the DLG-14 as in 1964 is included with this hull.

DLG 6 set: This package includes the hull, plans and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and metal fittings. Price $ 392.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 72.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 21 USS Arleigh Burke DDG-51 1/96 63" 8 3/16" $ 389.00

The BURKE class Aegis Guided Missile Destroyers are the newest and only destroyer type ships built by the US Navy in the 1990's . The Burke herself was commissioned in 1991, seven years after the contracts were signed. Commissioning of the ships of this class will continue past the year 2000, with 41 ships planned. These are the first warships in the US Navy designed from the up to the Aegis radar system and the MK-41 vertical missile launching system. Our hull for the DDG-51 class features the large bow sonar dome bolsters, the wedge stern shape and the shaft exits and strut locations molded in. A set of arrangement plans is also provided.


USS John Paul Jones by Kurt Greiner

DDG 51 set: This package for the ARLEIGH BURKE class destroyers features the hull with plans and a fittings package that includes: 5'-54 cal gun mount, forward and aft MK-41 vertical missile launchers, harpoon missile launchers, 20 mm CIWS, Mk 99 target , MK-32 torpedo tubes, WSC 3 sat-comm. antennas, SLQ32 ECM antennas, LN-66 nav. Radar, SPS-67 bar radar, SPY-1 aegis arrays, SRBOC chaff roc launchers, IFF ring antenna, and radomes. Also included are all the w/t doors, hatches, scuttles, mooring bitts and chocks, side lights, life rings, equipment lockers, capstan set, encapsulated life rafts , RIB's (rigid inflatable boats) with their crane, stack tops, vent set and the rudders. This set has most of the fittings necessary to build your model, the modeler still needs to fabricate their own prop shaft set, decks and the superstructure. Mr. Ron Hunt of Battle Creek, Mi. chose the DDG-53 as his first radio controlled model ship and was able to construct a very nice prize winning model in just over 4 1/2 months from start to sea trials.

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 98.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. SeaPhoto has many of the Arleigh Burke class thoroughly covered, including onboard and overhead views - all the reference material you will ever need to build a first class model.


The Yard - Follows the building of an Arleigh Burke Class Destroyer from first metal to delivery. A fantastic book that gives a lot of insight into how a modern warship is created. The chapter launching a ship from the building ways is particularly interesting. Very readable and highly recommended.


Modern U.S. Navy Destroyers - a nice softbound picture book with lots of views of an Arleigh Burke class destroyer

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 22 USS Garcia FF-1040 1/96 51 13/16" 5 1/2" $ 219.00

The 10 GARCIA class Frigates were originally designed and built as Ocean Escorts (DE-1040) and designated as DE's during a program to build an inexpensive and easily to mass produce escorts for war emergencies. These ships were an all gun armed version of the BROOKE FFG-1 missile frigates that were being built at about the same time. All of these ships have been either transferred to foreign navies or are being broke up. This hull has the large bow mounted sonar dome and anchor bolsters molded in and come with a set of arrangement plans.

FF-1040 set: This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Price: $ 422.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 23 USS Knox FF-1052 1/96 54 3/4" 5 7/8" $ 239.00

The KNOX class Frigates were originally designed and built as Destroyer Escorts (DE-1052) and reclassified as Fast Frigates (FF-1052) in 1975. These ships were built to counter the ever growing Soviet submarine threat. There were 46 ships in this class built during the late 1960's and early 70's, a number which in the post war US Navy is only surpassed by the newer 51 ship FFG-7 class. These ships mainly performed anti-submarine and other general patrol or escorting duties, although on many occasions they were called upon to supply off-shore gunfire support and various other duties as the situation called for. All of the ships of this class have now been withdrawn from active service and have been laid up in reserve or are being sold to foreign navies. This hull features the large bow mounted sonar dome, bow bulwarks and anchor bolsters molded in and come with a set of detailed arrangement plans.

FF 1052 SET: This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Price: $ 510.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 69.00

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 24 USS Brooke FFG 1 1/96 51 13/16" 5 1/2" $ 219.00

The 6 ships of the BROOKE class were built as a cheaper alternative to high cost and long building times involved with the larger and more complex DDG's and DLG's that the US Navy was in the process of building at the time. These ships were primarily designed as anti-submarine escorts for the larger cruisers and carrier battle groups, but they were also capable of anti air defense. These ships have all been transferred to foreign navies. This hull has the large bow mounted sonar dome and the anchor bolsters molded in. A set of anangement plans also comes with it.

FFG-1 SET: This package includes the hull, plans, and weapons set. Also included are cast polymer and cast metal fittings. Price $ 393.00

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 25 USS Oliver Hazard Perry FFG 7 1/96 54 3/4" 5 5/16" $ 219.00

The OLIVER HAZARD PERRY class Guided Missile Frigates are the last of the frigate classes of warships the US Navy operates, there were 51 units of this class built, as well as 4 additional units that were built for the Australian Navy. Spain also operates ships of this class. The Perry class frigates were designed primarily for anti-air warfare escorts with limited ASW capabilities as well. When these ships were in the planning they were designated as Patrol Frigates (PF-109 class). Now with the SH-60 Lamps III ASW Helicopter system installed, these ships are much more valuable for anti-submarine patrol duties. They are powered by 2 gas turbine engines running a single shaft which propels them to over 30 knots. This hull features molded in shaft skeg and anchor well and comes with a set of arrangement plans. Use this hull to build a model of FFG-7, 9 thru 27 and 28 thru 32 if you are building an early version of these last 5 ships.

FFG-7 SET: This set includes the hull w/plans, weapon set, polymer fittings package such as doors, hatches, mooring bitts & chocks, fire hose racks, main and diesel exhaust stacks, nixie aperture, scuttles, life rafts with racks, capstan set, sonar dome, lockers, rudder & fin stabilizers and other parts as well as cast metal fittings from our catalog. Price: $ 517.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 65.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. SeaPhoto has many views of the Perry class, including onboard and overhead shots.

Order # Ship Name Class Scale Length Beam Price
WHU-D 26 USS McInerney FFG 8 1/96 56 5/8" 5 5/16" $ 219.00

The McINERNEY was taken in hand for conversion into the test ship for the new "RAST" (recovery assist, securing and traversing) system for the LAMPS III helicopter . These ships were referred to as long hull FFG-7's. The FFG 8 and the FFG-28 thru FFG 61 have had their sterns lengthened by 8 feet and had the fantail deck lowered by 2 feet to clear the helo landing deck of all deck gear and to accommodate the RAST system which required additional space for the helo landing control booth mounted in the deck. This hull has the shaft skeg and anchor well molded in and comes with a set of arrangement plans.

The model of the FFG-7 class ships is a good project for someone just getting started and wishes to build a modern warship.

FFG-8 SET: This set includes the hull w/plans, weapon set, polymer fittings package such as doors, hatches, mooring bitts & chocks, fire hose racks, main and diesel exhaust stacks, nixie aperture, scuttles, life rafts with racks, capstan set, sonar dome, lockers, rudder & fin stabilizers and other parts as well as cast metal fittings from our catalog. Price: $ 517.00

Please note : this is not a complete kit, running gear, decks and building materials are not included

Special Shipping: This hull can be shipped via FEDEX Ground Service as in OS-1 size package. Minimum Shipping and handling in the USA 48 states is $ 65.00.

For information regarding a propeller shaft set for this ship click here.

SeaPhoto Photo Reference Sets are available for this class of ship by clicking on the button above. SeaPhoto has many views of the Perry class, including onboard and overhead shots.


Bainbridge II DD- 1 - History

A Bainbridge-class torpedo boat destroyer leads a division of torpedo boats.

It began in 1869 by establishing a &ldquotorpedo station&rdquo at Newport, Rhode Island. There, drawing on experience gained during the Civil War, it embarked on an extended program in which it monitored foreign designs for both torpedoes and small craft that could transport them, evaluated a range of domestic designs, qualified a designer-builder from which it ordered a pilot purpose-built &ldquotorpedo boat&rdquo and then, following further assessment and refinement, ordered additional torpedo boats and a first generation of larger &ldquotorpedo boat destroyers.&rdquo In 1904, it paused again to reconsider the qualities desirable in future vessels and the nature of trials needed to ensure their suitability. Finally, in 1907, it ordered the first in a long sequence of improved destroyers, which began to arrive in 1909.

Congress soon authorized sixteen torpedo boat destroyers, which joined the fleet by the end of 1903. These were built to multiple designs, typically about 250 feet long and displacing 400 tons or more. They carried two 18-inch torpedoes and two 3-inch rapid fire guns. All were coal fired and used reciprocating machinery, with four stacks, a conning tower forward, a raised or turtleback fo&rsquoc&rsquos&rsquole, a flat-bottomed stern and a length-to-beam ratio of more than 10:1. First to commission, in May 1902, was Decatur of the Bainbridge class (coincidentally, later run aground in the Philippines under Lt. Chester Nimitz). Her SHP was 8,300 her trial speed approached 30 knots.

As president from 1901, Theodore Roosevelt remained deeply involved in naval affairs. In 1904, following a recommendation from his naval aide, Commander Cameron McR. Winslow, a board convened under RAdm. George A. Converse to identify qualities and functions appropriate for follow-on destroyer construction. There followed 26 700-ton Smith and 742-ton Paulding-class &ldquoflivvers&rdquo (lightweights), authorized in fiscal years 1907&ndash10 and commissioned in 1909&ndash12. These were longer at nearly 294 feet LOA with a redesigned &ldquocutaway&rdquo stern. Armament was three single or twin torpedo tube mounts and five 3-inch guns. The Smiths introduced steam turbine propulsion. The Pauldings introduced oil firing.

Nominal displacement rose to 1,000 tons for the four-ship Cassin and Aylwin classes funded in 1912. The O&rsquoBrien, Tucker and Sampson classes funded in 1913&ndash15 (6 ships each) were also &ldquo1,000-tonners&rdquo&mdashall &ldquobroken-deckers&rdquo with high fo&rsquoc&rsquos&rsquoles mounting eight 18-inch or 21-inch torpedo tubes on hulls 305&ndash315 feet in length. Main gun battery was now four 4-inch/50 caliber rapid fire guns and complement was up to nearly 100. Commissioned in 1913&ndash17, these were the most modern torpedo boat destroyers in the US Navy&rsquos arsenal when it entered World War I.


Contents

World War II Edit

Following shakedown off the Pacific Coast, Putnam glided beneath the Golden Gate Bridge on 30 December 1944 to take her place with the Pacific Fleet. Arriving Pearl Harbor 2 January 1945, the destroyer prepared for her first offensive operation, and got under way on 29 January for the Marianas Islands, screening the transports carrying 4th and 5th Marine Divisions. [2]

Pausing briefly at Eniwetok, Saipan, and Tinian, the destroyer steamed from Guam 17 February in convoy en route to Iwo Jima. She arrived off Iwo Jima on D-Day (19 February) with the amphibious landing and battle underway. Gunfire support ships lying off-shore kept a thunderous rain of destruction pouring on the island. [2]

Putnam inched in dangerously close to attack shore installations in support of the invading Marines and illuminated Japanese troop concentrations at night with star shells. On 23 February, Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal and a high-ranking Navy-Marine Corps party, after observing the initial phases of the landing, embarked in Putnam for transportation to Guam and a conference with Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz. [2]

Putnam departed Guam 12 March and escorted logistics ships to Leyte in the Philippine Islands, arriving five days later. She stood out of San Pedro Bay, Philippines 27 March and escorted a transport group to Okinawa arriving Easter Sunday, the destroyer immediately took up anti-aircraft screening duties. After escorting a convoy to Ulithi, Putnam returned to Okinawa and was assigned a gunfire support station southwest of the island 16 April. [2]

Later assigned to a radar picket station, Putnam vectored Navy fighters against kamikazes. She remained unscathed only because an unidentified American pilot crashed into a kamikaze on 16 June just seconds before it would have hit the destroyer. [2]

Soon after sundown the same day, a torpedo dropped from a low-flying Japanese plane struck Twiggs to port and exploded her No. 2 magazine. Captain Glenn R. Hartwig, the squadron commander in Putnam, quickly closed. Exploding ammunition made rescue operations hazardous, but of 188 Twiggs survivors snatched from the sea, Putnam accounted for 114. [2]

Putnam retired from Okinawa on 1 July 1945. Aircraft from the carriers of Task Force 38 were cutting Japanese supply lines in the East China Sea. Putnam's guns assisted in screening the carriers in these anti-shipping strikes, through 8 August 1945. [2]

With the "cease hostilities" order of 15 August, the occupation of the Japanese home islands became the primary mission, and through the first week of September Putnam served as a guide and rescue destroyer for Tokyo-bound transport planes. She left her station, some 100 miles north of Okinawa, 13 September to serve in the escort for the battleship New Jersey as she steamed for Wakayama, on the central island of Honshū. [2]

Putnam stood into Tokyo Bay 17 September, where she rode out a howling typhoon. She then made a return to Wakayama 25 September, thence to Okinawa 1 October, and then back to Wakayama. Steaming via Eniwetok 5 December, the destroyer touched at Pearl Harbor on 10 December for fuel, and dropped her hook at San Diego on 22 December. [2]

Putnam received three battle stars for World War II service. [2]

Post-war Edit

Standing out of San Diego 3 January 1946, Putnam steamed for the New York Naval Shipyard, Brooklyn, for availability. She subsequently operated out of Newport, Rhode Island until the beginning of 1947, when she made Pensacola, Florida, her base. Late April 1947, Putnam called at Norfolk, Virginia, to be readied for a peacetime cruise to European waters. [2]

Putnam was one of three destroyers assigned 19–25 April 1948 to the United Nations mediator, Count Folke Bernadotte, to attempt to maintain peace between Arab and Israeli forces during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. When the truce temporarily broke down Putnam stood into Haifa 23 July to evacuate the UN team from that port. She was thus the first U.S. Navy ship to fly the United Nations flag. [2]

After a brief period of decommissioned reserve status with the Atlantic Reserve Fleet, Putnam reactivated in October 1950. A Mediterranean cruise took her away from Norfolk from October 1951 through 4 June 1952. Local operations and overhaul were followed by Caribbean refresher training 21 May through 10 July 1953. Putnam departed Norfolk 25 September and transited the Suez Canal 15 October, arriving Yokosuka 10 November. She operated in the Sea of Japan and the East China Sea through 11 March 1954. Departing Midway 17 March, she touched at Pearl Harbor 21 March, called at various West Coast ports.

Putnam, in late 1954, had a prominent role in the movie The Bridges at Toko-Ri filmed on the West Coast, as the destroyer steaming alongside the CV-34 USS Oriskany/Savo Bay, receiving via transfer lines disciplinary-transferred helicopter pilot Mickey Rooney and aircrewman Earl Holliman. Putnam then transited the Panama Canal and arrived Norfolk 1 May. [2]

A round of training cruises and deployments ("Lantflex" 1–55) took Putnam from the East Coast to the Mediterranean and the Caribbean. Her 1955 and 1956 Mediterranean deployments were followed by NATO North Atlantic exercises late 1957. A September 1958 Mediterranean deployment was followed by overhaul at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. [2]

Summer 1959 found Putnam participating in the first operation "Inland Seas" during which she steamed in all five of the Great Lakes. Between 1960 and 1969 the destroyer made nine annual deployments to the Mediterranean, interspersed with northern European operations, coast-wise trips, and visits to the Caribbean. In June 1962 she entered the New York Naval Shipyard for a FRAM II conversion, which was completed in March 1963. [2]

Putnam continued active deployments to 1970. [2]

After a short repair availability in Baltimore in mid-1970, USS Putnam was reassigned to New Orleans, Louisiana where she finished out her days performing the duties of a Reserve Trainer.

On 6 August 1973, Putnam was decommissioned and struck from the Navy List. Within a year she was sold for scrapping.


Update for October 2016 at HistoryofWar.org: Rise of Macedon, Boulton & Paul aircraft, Tucker class destroyers, M4 Sherman Tank, Prussian leaders of Revolutionary Wars

This month we look at more Boulton & Paul aircraft, two more Tucker class destroyers, and complete our look at the main 75mm gun versions of the Sherman tank. Away from weaponry we look at two figures from early in the life of Philip III of Macedon, and three key Prussian leaders of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

Our picture gallery continues to expand. This month we have three collections donated by readers - Terry Ruff's collection relating to No.357 Squadron, Lt. Col John Marie Robert Audette's photos from the 30 th Bombardment Group and Captain Harold C. James from the 341 st Bombardment Group. We also add new pictures of US Naval Aircraft, US Warships and Napoleon's Marshals.

Philomelus(d.354) was the leader of the Phocians at the start of the Third Sacred War. After a series of early victories he committed suicide to avoid capture after suffering a heavy defeat at the battle of Neon (354 BC).

Ptolemy Alorites (or Ptolemy of Aloros) was a Macedonian who attempted to seize the throne from Alexander II, then acted a regent for Alexander's brother Perdiccas III before being assassinated by Perdiccas, who seized power in his own name.

USS Wadsworth (DD-60) was a Tucker class destroyer that operated from Queenstown and then Brest during the American involvement in the First World war, carrying out a large number of attacks on possible U-boats without recorded success.

USS Jacob Jones (DD-61) was a Tucker class destroyer that became the only US destroyer lost to enemy action during the First World War, when she was sunk by U-53.

Gebhard Lebrecht Fürst Blücher von Wahlstatt was the most famous Prussian commander of the Napoleonic Wars and played an important part in the revival of Prussian military power in 1813-1815 and in the campaigns in Germany, France and of Waterloo.

Frederick William II of Prussia (1744-1797, r.1786-1797) was the king of Prussia at the start of the French Revolutionary Wars, and led Prussia into the War of the First Coalition, before losing interest and taking his country out of the war early in 1795.

Frederick William III (1770-1840, r.1797-1840) was king of Prussia during the Napoleonic Wars, and led Prussia during one of the most disastrous periods in her history in 1806-7 and during her revival in 1813-15.

The Medium Tank M4A3/ Sherman IV had a welded hull and Ford V-8 engine, and was one of the main US service versions. It was also the version chosen for use after the end of the Second World War.

The Medium Tank M4A4/ Sherman V had a welded hull and used the Chrysler multibank engine. The engine was rejected for use by the US Army, but proved to be very reliable in Britain, where over 7,000 tanks were received

The Medium Tank M4E1 was an experimental version of the Sherman that used a diesel version of the Wright G200 Cyclone air-cooled radial engine.

The Medium Tank M4A6 was the final production version of the Sherman, and used the composite hull introduced late in the production of the M4 and a modified version of the Wright Cyclone engine that could use diesel fuel.

The Medium Tank M4A2E1 was a version of the Sherman tank that was powered by a General Motors engine developed from a marine diesel engine.

The Medium Tank M4E3 was an experimental version of the Sherman that was powered by a Chrysler A65 engine.

Boulton & Paul Aircraft

The Boulton & Paul P.67 was a design for a monoplane fighter produced to satisfy Air Ministry Specification F.7/30.

The Boulton & Paul P.69 was a design for a bomber/ transport aircraft, based on the earlier P.64 mail carrier

The Boulton & Paul P.70 was a design for a bomber, based on the earlier P.64 mail carrier and P.69 bomber-transport design, and was the first Boulton & Paul design to be produced with power operated gun turrets from the start.

The Boulton Paul P.74 was the company's first design for a turret fighter, and was a twin engined design that would have carried two turrets.

The 404th Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day invasion, the advance across France, the battle of the Bulge, the crossing of the Rhine and the invasion of Germany.

The 405th Fighter Group (USSAF) served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day landings, the advance across France, the battle of the Bulge, the crossing of the Rhine and the invasion of Germany.

The 406th Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day landings, the break out from Normandy, the sieges of St Malo and Brest, the advance across France, the Battle of the Bulge and the advance into Germany.

Terry Ruff Collection, No.357 Squadron

Lt. Col John Marie Robert Audette, 38th Bombardment Squadron, 30th Bombardment Group

Captain Harold C. James, 11th Bombardment Squadron, 341st Bombardment Group

The C.S.S. Albemarle and William Cushing: The Remarkable Confederate Ironclad and the Union Officer Who Sank It, Jim Stempel.
Follows the twin stories of the construction and service of the Confederate Ironclad ram Albemarle and the life of impressive young Naval officer who sank her. Follows both stories from start to finish, covering them in parallel, so events on shore as the ship is being built are lined up with Cushing's developing career, before the two come together in the daring raid that sank the Albemarle and the escape that followed
[read full review]

A Moonlight Massacre, Michael Locicero.
A detailed history of a little known night attack that came after the official end of the Third Battle of Ypres, and that was intended to improve the British position on the northern edge of Passchendaele Ridge. Demonstrates the problems that could be caused by poor communications and the confusion of a night time attack, even in the increasingly expert British army of 1917, while also examining the real end of the British offensive action at Ypres in 1917
[read full review]

The Horns of the Beast - The Swakop River Campaign and World War I in South-West Africa 1914-15, James Stejskal.
Focuses on the successful South African invasion of German South-West Africa, a brief campaign that rarely gets more than a paragraph or two in histories of the First World War. This book focuses on one part of that campaign, the successful advance up the Swakop River which led to the defeat of the main German army in the area and the eventual surrender of the entire colony. Often neglected, this was an important victory for the South Africans, and helped unite the colony at the start of the Great War
[read full review]

War Cruel and Sharp: English Strategy under Edward III, Clifford J. Rogers.
Looks at the first phase of the Wars of the Roses, to the Peace of Bretigny of 1360, and argues that Edward III's victory was due to a deliberate strategy of seeking battle. Makes a very well argued case, supported by a detailed knowledge of the primary sources, built around a narrative account of Edward's campaigns in Scotland, where he learnt his craft, and in France.
[read full review]

Wanton Troops - Buckinghamshire in the Civil Wars 1640-1660, Ian F.W. Beckett.
Looks at the impact of the Civil Wars on a county that didn’t see any major battles or host any of the major garrisons, but was instead placed between them, suffering from raids, garrisons and passing armies. Looks at County Community before, during and after the war, and the impact of the fighting on the local communities of Buckinghamshire to produce a useful cross section of the disruption caused by the Civil War
[read full review]

German U-Boat Losses During World War II, Axel Niestlé.
An excellent well documented and credible summary of the current state of knowledge on U-Boat losses during the Second World War, reflecting the discoveries made in German archives and in underwater explanation in the sixty years since the original post-war assessments were made. Each change is supported by a clear explanation of why the original assessment is wrong, and the evidence for the new assessment
[read full review]

The War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1714, James Falkner.
An excellent new single volume history of this important conflict, covering all of the areas of conflict and the related diplomatic manoeuvres. Provides a clear example of a war in which outstanding military victories didn’t lead to the sort of political results that one might have expected, but one that still greatly reduced the power of France and set the tone for the series of wars that dominated the Eighteenth Century
[read full review]

Frontline Medic: Gallipoli, Somme, Ypres: The Diary of Captain George Pirie, R.A.M.C. 1914-17, Michael Lucas.
Follows the experiences of a South African doctor from a Scottish family through some of the most notorious battles of the First World War, following Pirie in and out of the lines. An uncut diary that includes both dramatic accounts of major Allied attacks and rest time out of the trenches, as well as the day-to-day life in and around the trenches. Unedited after the war, this gives a contemporary day by day view of Pirie's view of the war.
[read full review]

Victory was Beyond Their Grasp, Douglas E. Nash.
A history of the 272nd Volks-Grenadier Division, based around the company records of Fusilier Company 272, and tracing the unit from its formation, through the bitter fighting in the Hürtgen Forest, and on to the brief defence of the Rhine and the final chaotic retreat into the heart of Germany. An excellent history of a division that suffered a huge number of casualties, with the Fusilier Company alone suffered over 200% casualties
[read full review]


USS Goff (DD-247)

USS Goff (DD-247) was a Clemson class destroyer that spent most of the Second World War on escort duties in the Caribbean and Atlantic, apart from spell in 1943 when she was part of the successful submarine hunting group built around the carrier USS Card.

The Goff was named after Nathan Goff, Secretary of the Navy from 1880 and a senator for West Virginia.

The Goff was laid down by the New York Shipbuilding Co at Camden, New Jersey, and launched on 2 June 1920, when she was sponsored by Goff&rsquos widow. She was commissioned on 19 January 1921.

The Goff operated along the US east coast in the summers of 1921 and 1922 and in the Caribbean in the winter of 1921-22. In October 1922 she departed from the US to join the US fleet in the eastern Mediterranean, arriving at Constantinople on 22 October. The Goff visited a variety of ports around the eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea, and on 18-20 July 1923 helped evacuate hundreds of Turkish refugees from Marsina (an uncertain location, probably close to the current Turkish-Syrian border). The Goff didn&rsquot spend as long in the area as some American warships, and departed for the US on 11 August 1923.

After her return to the US the Goff joined the Scouting Fleet, based on the US east coast. She then settled into the standard routine of that fleet, a mix of summers spent operating along the US East Coast and winters exercising in the Caribbean.

There were some interruptions to this routine. The first half of 1925 was dominated by the annual Fleet Problem, which was held off Hawaii. She was thus absent from the east coast from 5 January to 17 July.

In the autumn of 1926 she helped with the relief effort on the Isle of Pina, off Cuba, which had been hit by a hurricane on 19-20 October. She operated alongside the Milwaukee, and provided medical support.

Early in 1927 the Goff joined the Special Service Squadron, which operated to protect US interests during an ongoing civil war in Nicaragua. Anyone who landed in Nicaragua between 15 January and 11 February 1927 qualified for the Second Nicaraguan Campaign Medal.

In June 1927 she was part of the flotilla that meet the cruiser Memphis as she returned Charles Lindbergh back across the Atlantic after his famous west to east solo flight.

In June 1930 the Goff was used to carry President-elect Herrera of Columbia from Newport to West Point.

The Goff was decommissioned at Philadelphia on 13 January 1931, but this was only a short interlude and she was recommissioned on 2 March 1932. For the next year she carried out naval reserve training cruises along the east coast. On 5 October 1933 she returned to Cuban waters (part of Destroyer Division 8, with the McFarland (DD-237), Reuben James (DD-245) and Bainbridge (DD-246)), to protect US interests during the civil war that led to the rise of the future dictator Batista. She remained in Cuban waters until 2 April 1934, when she returned to the East Coast.

On 9 November 1935 the Goff arrived at San Diego to join the Pacific Fleet. She was based in the Pacific into 1939, taking part in the normal mix of operations along the west coast and in Hawaiian waters.

On 4 January 1939 the Goff left San Diego to return to the east coast. She reached her new base at New York on 20 April and spent the next few months carrying out more training cruisers.

Second World War

On 8 September 1939, after the outbreak of war in Europe, the Goff began duties with the Neutrality Patrol off the coast of New England. On 14 February 1940 the Goff collided with the yard tug USS Wicomico (Yard Tug No.26) in Hampton Roads. The Wicomico sank almost immediately.

The Goff was then selected for service with Destroyer Division 55, which was operating in European waters. The Goff joined the division at Ponta Delgada in the Azores on 29 June 1940 and became flagship. She was then based at Lisbon for several months, before departed for the US on 21 September 1940.

After her return to the United States the Goff became flagship of DesDiv 67. She then escorted the new submarine Seawolf to the Panama Canal Zone, arriving on 31 October 1940. She spent the last year before America&rsquos entry into the war on patrol duty in the Caribbean and around the Panama Canal.

After the US entry into the war the Goff was used as a convoy escort and patrol vessel in the Caribbean. The Americans were poorly prepared for the arrival of the U-boats off their coast, and the first few months of 1942 became known to the U-boat men as the &lsquoSecond Happy Time&rsquo. Eight merchant ships were lost in convoys being escorted by the Goff.

In 1943 the destroyers Goff, Barry and Borie joined the carrier USS Card to form Task Group 21.14, which was used to provide distant escort for convoys and on hunter-killer patrols. The Goff was part of the Card&rsquos group from 27 July to 9 November 1943, a period in which the group was credited with the destruction of eight U-boats. This included one that was sunk after being rammed by the Borie on 1 November. The Borie was also fatally wounded in the incident, and the Goff helped rescue the survivors after she sank. The Goff was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for her time with the task group.

After this period of excitement the Goff returned to more normal escort duties. On 28 November 1943 she and the Barry left Norfolk to escort the seaplane tender Albemarle to Casablanca, arriving on 7 December. From 13-18 December she escorted the Albemarle from Casablanca to Iceland, then returned to the US on 31 December. She continued to escort the Albemarle for the first seven months of 1944, escorting her to Trinidad, Casablanca, Brazil and Britain. This period ended when she began an overhaul at Boston on 13 July 1944.

After the overhaul was complete the Goff moved to Key West, arriving on 31 August 1944. She joined the Fleet Sound School and was used as a harbour guard, target vessel for aircraft and ships undergoing training and on occasion on anti-submarine patrols.

The Goff was decommissioned on Philadelphia on 21 July 1945, struck off on 13 August 1945 and sold for scrap on 30 November 1945.

Goff received two battle stars for service in World War II, for Task Group 21.14 (27 July-10 September 1943) and Task Group 21.14 (25 September-19 November 1943) &ndash the two awards covering serving in the American and European halves of the Atlantic theatre.


Military

On December 17, 1999, the U.S. Navy awarded a contract modification to General Dynamics Bath Iron Works which provides funding for one ARLEIGH BURKE Class AEGIS guided missile destroyer. The $324 million contract modification funds one destroyer in fiscal year 2000. The ship was one of six awarded to BIW on March 6, 1998, as part of a multi-year contract for fiscal years 1998-2001. Construction on DDG 96 was scheduled to begin in the spring of 2002 with delivery to the U.S. Navy in the spring of 2005. The shipyard has a total of nine DDG 51 class destroyers in its backlog. Bath Iron Works, lead shipyard for the class, had delivered 16 of the destroyers to the U.S. Navy to date.

On December 17, 2002 the Secretary of the Navy Gordon R. England selected the name Bainbridge for its newest destroyer, DDG 96. Bainbridge will be a Flight IIA variant of the Arleigh Burke class guided-missile destroyer and incorporates a helicopter hanger facility into the original design. The ship can carry two SH-60B/R Helicopters. Guided-missile destroyers operate independently and in conjunction with carrier battle groups, surface action groups, amphibious groups and replenishment groups.

Bath Iron Works (BIW) laid the keel on May 7, 2003 for the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer Bainbridge (DDG 96), the 25th such ship to be constructed at the Maine shipyard The last time BIW constructed this many hulls of a ship class was during World War II.

The Navy christened the Arleigh Burke class guided-missile destroyer, Bainbridge, on Nov. 13, 2004, during a ceremony at Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine. Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development and Acquisition John Young delivered the ceremony's principal address. Susan Bainbridge Hay served as sponsor of the ship named for her great-great-great-grandfather.

The Arleigh Burke class guided-missile destroyer, Bainbridge (DDG 96), was commissioned on Nov. 12, 2005, in an ceremony at Port Everglades, Fort Lauderdale, Fla.

William Banbridge

William Bainbridge was born in Princeton, New Jersey, on 7 May 1774. He went to sea in the merchant marine in 1789 and was captain of a ship before reaching the age of twenty. Bainbridge was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the U.S. Navy in August 1798. Though his first command, the schooner Retaliation, was captured by two much more powerful French frigates in November, Lieutenant Bainbridge was subsequently promoted to the rank of Master Commandant and then to Captain. During 1800-1803 he commanded the U.S. warships George Washington, Essex and Philadelphia during operations in the Mediterranean, but was taken prisoner with his entire crew when Philadelphia ran aground off Tripoli on 31 October 1803.

After regaining his freedom in 1805, Captain Bainbridge supervised naval facilities and the construction of gunboats and, while on leave, again served in the merchant marine. He returned from the last of his commercial voyages in 1812, shortly before the United States went to war with Great Britain.

Shortly, after Christmas, 1812, USS Constitution was sailing in the Atlantic just off the coast of Brazil. On the morning of 29 December, sails were sighted on the horizon, and Constitution's new captain, William Bainbridge [1774-1843], altered course to investigate. The ship proved to be HMS Java, a frigate similar to Guerriere. Both frigates stood for each other and cleared their decks for action.

CONSTITUTION was about 30 miles off the coast of Brazil on 29 December 1812 when, at about 2 in the afternoon, she began a fight with the faster HMS JAVA. Commodore William Bainbridge in command of "Old Ironsides," was wounded twice, and the ship's wheel was shot away, but for more than 2 hours he maneuvered brilliantly and fought tenaciously until, finally, JAVA had no masts left standing and her Captain lay dying. This time, there were 34 American casualties as opposed to around 150 British. Like GUERRIERE, JAVA was too badly damaged to bring home - but before sinking her, Bainbridge had her wheel removed to replace the one shot away on CONSTITUTION. Commodore Bainbridge also received a gold medal. The seemingly invincible "old Ironsides" returned to Boston late in February for refitting and her wounded commander was relieved by Captain Charles Stewart.

After the end of the War of 1812, the American government turned its attention back to the Mediterranean where Algiers had resumed preying upon American shipping while the United States was preoccupied by its recently concluded war with Great Britain. On 23 February 1815, President Madison requested that Congress declare war on Algiers and it voted favorably on his recommendation on 2 March. Work fitting out two American squadrons promptly began - one at Boston under Commodore William Bainbridge and one at New York under Commodore Steven Decatur, Jr. The United States was assigned to the former but required, after being bottled up in port for the latter part of the War of 1812, some repairs and refitting. Thus, she was not ready for sea when Bainbridge departed Boston on 3 July.

Guerriere led a squadron in a show of force that resulted in a peace settlement with Tunis 13 July 1815 and with Tripoli 9 August 1815. Having enforced the peace in less than 6 weeks from time of sailing from the United States, she combined with the entire naval force assembled at Gibraltar under Commodore William Bainbridge. The 18 warships, including ship-of-the-line Independence, 5 frigates, 2 sloops-of-war, 7 brigs, and 3 schooners, was the largest fleet ever collected under the American flag in the Mediterranean to that time. It marked the beginning of a permanent naval fleet in the Mediterranean which has evolved into the powerful 6th Fleet of today.

The First Bainbridge

USS Bainbridge, a 259-ton brig built at the Boston Navy Yard, was commissioned in December 1842. She operated with the Home Squadron until mid-1844 and then alternated in service with the Brazil and African Squadrons until 1860. In 1859-60 Bainbridge participated in the punitive expedition against Paraguay.

In May 1861, soon after the Civil War began, Bainbridge was sent to the Gulf of Mexico to enforce the blockade of the Confederacy and to protect United States shipping. While in that area in May and June 1862, she participated in the capture of three blockade runners. Following a brief trip north, Bainbridge returned to the Gulf area in August 1862. She encountered a damaging storm at Aspinwall, Columbia (later Panama) in late November 1862 that forced her to jettison much of her equipment, armament and supplies. Repaired at New York in May-August 1863, USS Bainbridge was en route south on 21 August 1863 when she capsized off Cape Hatteras. Only one of her crewmen survived this disaster.

USS Bainbridge, a 420-ton destroyer that was the first of her class, and the first ship classified as a destroyer by the U.S. Navy, was built at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Commissioned in November 1902, she remained in reserve status until February 1903 and then operated with the North Atlantic Fleet. In December 1903 Bainbridge left the United States on a long voyage to the Philippines. Accompanied by four of her sister destroyers, she steamed across the Atlantic, transited the Mediterranean, passed through the Suez Canal and crossed the Indian Ocean, arriving at Cavite, near Manila, in April 1904. She served in the Far East for the next thirteen years, mainly in the Philippine Islands and along the China coast.

Bainbridge left Asian waters in August 1917 to reinforce the U.S. Navy's battle against the German U-Boats in the eastern Atlantic. Between September 1917 and mid-1918 the destroyer operated in the vicinity of Gibraltar, escorting convoys and conducting patrols. She steamed across the Atlantic to Charleston, South Carolina, in July 1918 and spent the rest of World War I, and the early post-war months, serving along the U.S. East Coast. Decommissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in July 1919, USS Bainbridge was sold for scrapping in early January 1920.

DD 246

USS Bainbridge was a 1190-ton Clemson class destroyer built at Camden, New Jersey. She was commissioned in February 1921 and served in the Western Atlantic and Caribbean areas until October 1922, when she steamed to the Mediterranean to operate near the then-troubled nation of Turkey. On 16 December 1922, Bainbridge saved nearly 500 people from the French transport Vinh-Long, which was burning in the Sea of Marmora near Constantinople, and act for which her crew was officially commended and her Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Commander Walter A. Edwards, was awarded the Medal of Honor.

After returning to the United States in 1923, Bainbridge was assigned to the Scouting Fleet, which was stationed in the Atlantic but made regular visits to the Caribbean and occasionally passed through the Panama Canal for combined exercises with the West Coast based Battle Fleet. The destroyer patrolled off Nicaragua with the Special Service Squadron in 1927 and was employed at times for training Naval Reservists. She was out of commission between December 1930 and March 1932 and then spent more than a year in reduced commission as part of the Rotating Reserve. Bainbridge rejoined the Special Service Squadron in 1933 and, late in the following year, was transferred to the Pacific, where she was active until decommissioning in November 1937.

In late September 1939, soon after the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Bainbridge was recommissioned. Based in the Panama Canal Zone, she made Neutrality Patrols in that area until mid-1940, when she began operations out of Key West, Florida. During most of 1941 Bainbridge served in the North Atlantic, where she escorted convoys to and from Iceland as relations with Germany became increasingly hostile. Once war formally began in December 1941, she continued her escort and patrol work off the Atlantic coast and in the Caribbean. She was slightly damaged by an enemy mine off Chesapeake Bay in June 1942. In 1943 Bainbridge extended her reach across the ocean when she escorted several convoys between the U.S. and North Africa. In the middle of that year she was part of a task group, built around the escort aircraft carrier Santee (CVE-29), that sank several U-boats. No longer needed after Germany's surrender, USS Bainbridge was decommissioned in July 1945 and sold for scrapping at the end of November.

CGN 25 (Ex-DLGN 24)

USS Bainbridge, a 7800-ton nuclear-powered guided missile frigate, was built at Quincy, Massachusetts. Commissioned in October 1962, she shook down off the U.S. East Coast and in the Caribbean area until February 1963, when she began her first Mediterranean deployment. This included demonstrations of her long-range high speed dash capabilities and operations with the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Enterprise (CVAN-65). Bainbridge returned to the Mediterranean in May 1964, this time joining Enterprise and the guided missile cruiser Long Beach (CGN-9) to form the all-nuclear-powered Task Force 1. At the end of July the three ships began Operation "Sea Orbit", a two-month unrefueled cruise around the World.

In October 1965 Bainbridge again rounded the Cape of Good Hope, en route to the Western Pacific for the first of eleven Seventh Fleet cruises. Operating for much of this deployment off strife-torn Vietnam, she screened aircraft carriers, served as a radar-picket ship, and performed search and rescue missions. In June the frigate crossed the Pacific to her new home port, Long Beach, California. Her next five Far Eastern tours, in 1966-67, 1969, 1970, 1971 and 1972-73, also involved Vietnam War combat operations, as well as voyages to Australia and, beginning in 1970, the Indian Ocean. In 1967-68 Bainbridge underwent shipyard overhaul and her first nuclear refueling. The ship's seventh trip to the Far East, beginning in November 1973, included a lengthy visit to the Arabian Sea, a locale that would become very familiar in the coming decades.

Bainbridge received an extensive modernization and refueling between June 1974 and September 1976, with post-overhaul work lasting until April 1977. While in the shipyard, at the end of June 1975, she was reclassified from frigate to cruiser, receiving the new designation CGN-25. Her next Seventh Fleet deployment ran from January to August 1978 and included visits throughout the region, from Japan and Korea to Thailand and Singapore, with her homeward-bound voyage taking her to Australia and through the South Pacific. Bainbridge made three more WestPac tours, in 1979-80, 1981 and 1982-83. Each of them involved extensive operations in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea.

After receiving her final nuclear refueling overhaul in 1983-85, Bainbridge left the Pacific after two decades, transited the Panama Canal and rejoined the Atlantic Fleet. Her operations thereafter included counter-drug smuggling patrols in the Caribbean, several deployments to northern European waters and four Mediterranean cruises (1986-87, 1988-89 -- including combat operations off Libya, 1991-92 -- with a Red Sea and Persian Gulf tour, and 1994 as Flagship of the Standing Naval Forces, Atlantic). Inactivated in October 1995, USS Bainbridge decommissioned in September 1996. She was towed to the Bremerton, Washington, in mid-1997 and in October of that year entered dry dock to begin "recycling", the process by which nuclear-powered warships are scrapped.


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Built by Mitsubishi at Kobe, Japan, I-72 was laid down on 16 December 1933 and launched on 6 April 1935. [2] She was completed and accepted into Imperial Japanese Navy service on 7 January 1937. [2]

Pre-World War II Edit

Upon commissioning, I-72 was assigned to Submarine Division 20 in the Kure Naval District. While operating on the surface in limited visibility on 5 May 1938, she collided at about 10:00 with the Japanese 60-gross register ton motor vessel Hachiyo Maru in the Seto Inland Sea west of Kurahashi-jima, Japan. [2] I-72 suffered only minor damage, but Hachiyo Maru sank about two minutes after the collision. [2]

As the Imperial Japanese Navy began to deploy in preparation for the impending conflict in the Pacific, I-72 departed Seaki, Japan, along with the submarines I-68, I-69, I-70, I-71, and I-73. [2] She arrived at Kwajalein Atoll on 20 November 1941. [2]

World War II Edit

First war patrol Edit

On 23 November 1941, I-72 departed Kwajalein to begin what would become her first war patrol. [2] She received the message "Climb Mount Niitaka 1208" (Japanese: Niitakayama nobore 1208 ) from the Combined Fleet on 2 December 1941, indicating that war with the Allies would commence on 8 December 1941 Japan time (7 December 1941 in Hawaii). [2] She arrived in the Hawaiian Islands on 5 December 1941 and conducted a reconnaissance of Kalohi Channel between Lānaʻi and Molokaʻi. [2] She then investigated Lahaina Roads off Maui to determine if the U.S. fleet was anchored there, and on 6 December 1941 she radioed the Japanese Carrier Striking Force with the news that no U.S. warships were at Lahaina Roads. [2]

On 7 December 1941, I-72 took up station off Pearl Harbor between I-70 and I-73. [2] The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor took place that morning, bringing Japan and the United States into World War II. On the evening of 16 December 1941, she surfaced off Hilo Bay and shelled Hilo, Hawaii, with her 4.7-inch (119 mm) deck gun. [2] On 19 December 1941, she torpedoed the American 5,113-gross register ton cargo steamer Prusa 150 nautical miles (278 km 173 mi) south of Oahu. [2] Prusa, which was on a voyage from Honolulu, Hawaii, to Baltimore, Maryland, sank at 16°45′N 156°00′W  /  16.750°N 156.000°W  / 16.750 -156.000  ( SS Prusa ) nine minutes later. [2] I-72 surfaced to identify Prusa and illuminated Prusa′s lifeboats with her searchlight, then submerged and continued her patrol. [2] She returned to Kwajalein on 28 December 1941. [2]

Second war patrol Edit

On 12 January 1942, I-72 departed Kwajalein with I-71 and I-73 for her second war patrol. [2] This patrol also was in Hawaiian waters, where I-71, I-72, and I-73 relieved the submarines I-18, I-22, and I-24 on a picket line. [2] I-72 arrived in her patrol area on 21 January 1942. [2]

On 16 February 1942, I-72 returned to Kwajalein. [2]

Third war patrol Edit

I-72 departed Kwajalein on 18 February 1942 with I-71 to patrol in defense of Rabaul, which the U.S. Navy's Task Force 11 was approaching with an intention to launch air raids against Japanese forces and bases there. [2] After Task Force 11 lost the element of surprise, however, it withdrew, and the two submarines were diverted to patrol areas east of Wake Island. [2] After an uneventful patrol, I-72 proceeded to Japan, where she arrived on 5 March 1942 for repairs at Kure. [2]

March–September 1942 Edit

While I-72 was at Kure, Submarine Division 20 was disbanded on 20 March 1942, and she was reassigned that day to Submarine Division 12. [2] She departed Kure on 15 April 1942, visited Yokosuka from 3 to 10 May 1942, and returned to Kure on 12 May 1942 for additional repairs. [2] While she was there, she was redesignated I-172 on 20 May 1942. [2] With her repairs complete, she departed Kure on 22 August 1942 and proceeded to Truk, where she arrived on 28 August 1942. [2]

I-172 departed Truk on 30 August 1942. [2] The Guadalcanal campaign had begun on 7 August 1942, and her main task was to perform a reconnaissance mission in the Guadalcanal area. [2] She returned to Truk on 30 September 1942. [2]

Fourth war patrol Edit

With the commander of Submarine Division 12 embarked, I-172 departed Truk on 12 October 1942 for her fourth war patrol. [2] Her orders called for her to support an attack by Type A midget submarines against Allied shipping off Guadalcanal's Lunga Point. [2] On 14 October, however, she was ordered to proceed instead to join the submarine I-26 south of San Cristóbal to recharge the batteries of Type A midget submarines carried aboard the seaplane tender Chiyoda. [2] Her orders again changed on 15 October 1942, when she was ordered to join the submarines I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4, I-5, I-7, I-17, I-22, and I-31 — collectively designated "Group A" — in forming a picket line southeast of Guadalcanal. [2] She remained on this duty through the end of the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands of 25–27 October 1942. [2] Group A was dissolved on 28 October 1942, [2] and I-172 then deployed to waters southwest of San Cristóbal with orders attack Allied shipping supplying American forces on Guadalcanal. [2]

Loss Edit

Sources agree that I-172 was sunk while operating southwest of San Cristóbal, but disagree on the date and cause.

The Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships notes that McCalla conducted a depth charge attack on 2 November 1942, but makes not mention of McCalla sinking a submarine on either 2 or 3 November 1942. [4] It claims that early on the morning of 10 November 1942, while passing between San Cristobal and Guadalcanal en route to Aola Bay on Guadalcanal, USS Southard (DMS-10) encountered I-172 operating on the surface. Southard immediately slowed to 10 knots (19 km/h 12 mph) and opened fire. I-172 submerged, and Southard commenced her first depth-charge attack. Southard lost contact with I-172 and did not regain it again until 06:07, almost three and one-half hours later. Over the next three hours Southard made five more depth-charge runs. After the last barrage, she sighted oil on the surface. She moved in to investigate. Upon reaching the oil slick, Southard ' s crew could find no further evidence of damage, and she steamed on through the slick. When she reached a point about 2,000 yards (1,830 m) on the other side of the slick, the submarine surfaced almost vertically, exposing her whole conning tower, her hull forward of the tower, and part of her keel. Then the bow dropped about 10 degrees, and the submarine sank rapidly by the stern. Though absolute confirmation of a kill was never received, all evidence strongly indicated that the submarine had indeed sunk. [5] Combinedfleet.com states that "Although USS Southard (DMS-10) is often credited with I-172′s sinking, her target was more likely I-15. [2]

On 27 November 1942, the Imperial Japanese Navy declared that I-172 was presumed lost off Guadalcanal along with all 91 men on board. [2] She was struck from the Navy List 15 December 1942. [2]


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